Carnegie Stages - 2nd Trimester Pregnancy3rd Trimester Pregnancy3rd Trimester PregnancyCarnegie Stage 1 - Fertilization Carnegie Stage 2 - CleavageCarnegie Stage 3 - Early BlastocystCarnegie Stage 4 - ImplantationCarnegie Stage 5 - Implantation CompletedCarnegie Stage 6 - GastrulationCarnegie Stage 7 - NeurulationCarnegie Stage 8 - Primitive PitCarnegie Stage 9 - First SomitesCarnegie Stage 10 - Neural Folds, Heart TubeCarnegie Stage 11 - Optic VesicleCarnegie Stage 12 - Upper Limb BudsCarnegie Stage 13 - First Layer Skin Carnegie Stage 14 - Esophagus FormingCarnegie Stage 15 - Cerebral Hemispheres FormingCarnegie Stage 16 - Hindbrain DevelopingCarnegie Stage 17 - Primitive germ cellsCarnegie Stage 19 - Semicircular Canals Forming in Inner EarCarnegie Stage 20 - Spontaneous MovementCarnegie Stage 21 - Intestines MigrateCarnegie Stage 22 - Brain can move musclesCarnegie Stage 23 - End of embryonic developmentWeeks 10 to 11 - Basic Brain Structure CompleteWeeks 12 to 13 - Fetus begins to move aroundWeeks 14 to 15 - Sexual organs now clearly visibleWeeks 16 to 17 - Fingerprints and toe prints beginWeeks 18 to 19 - Brown fat surrounds the lymphatic system.Weeks 20 to 21 - Bone marrow starts making blood cellsWeeks 22 to 23 - Inner ear bones harden, hearing possibleWeeks 24 to 25 - Sensory brain waves begin to activateWeeks 26 to 27 - Lungs begin to produce sufacantWeeks 28 to 29 - Brain Surface Convolutions BeginWeeks 39 to 40 - Baby full termWeeks 41 - 41 Baby full termWeeks 38 to 39 - Fetal liver is producing blood cellsWeeks 36 to 37 - Body is round and plump with white fatWeeks 34 to 35 - Gastrointestinal system still very immatureWeeks 32 to 33 - Fetus begins to develop immune systemWeeks 30 to 31 - Rapid brain growth; head size increasesPregnancy - 1st TrimesterPregnancy - 1st Trimester

The Visible Embryo
is a visual guide through fetal development from fertilization through pregnancy to birth. As the most profound physiologic changes occur in the "first trimester" of pregnancy, these Carnegie stages are given prominence on the birth spiral.

The shape and location of embryonic
internal structures and how they
relate and are connected to each
other is essential to understanding
human development. Medical
professionals create a mental picture
of this process in order to determine
how well the fetus is progressing. It is
also the basis of knowing how and when
errors in development occur and if a
possibility exists for a corrective

It is equally important for expectant
parents to understand the relationship
of these internal structures and how
their infant develops through pregnancy.

Creating the images for The Visible Embryo, included capturing data from slides and three dimensional structures on fetal anatomy in The National Institutes of Health, Carnegie Collection of embryos, as well as from 3D and 4D ultra sound images.

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical,legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.



The Visible Embryo Home
Fetal Timeline-     Maternal Timeline&   mNews-       Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy -    --Pregnancy Calculator-   --  Female Reproductive System--

News Alerts    Birth Spiral  How Synchronised waves control embryo patterning  Birth Spiral  How DNA is packaged orchestrates development  Birth Spiral  Cells communicate with rhythm and beat  Birth Spiral  How quickly do cells respond?  Birth Spiral  What causes 'individual' behavior?  Birth Spiral  Egg must signal the uterus in order to implant  Birth Spiral  Mental disorders share molecular similarities  Birth Spiral  Ibuprofen early in pregnancy reduces fetal eggs  Birth Spiral  THINK BEFORE YOU DRINK!  Birth Spiral  Low carb diet risky when pregnant  Birth Spiral  Uncovering origins for brain cancer  Birth Spiral  Uncovering the origin of Huntington's disease  Birth Spiral  What makes a good egg?   Birth Spiral  A gene initiating neuron formation may lead to repair   Birth Spiral  Zika susceptibility linked to a baby's genetics   Birth Spiral  Let silenced genes speak and cure!  Birth Spiral  Mesp1 gene leads to a functioning heart  February 2018   Birth Spiral  FDA-approved drug shuts down Ewing sarcoma cells  Birth Spiral  Nerve cells can transmit electric signals after injury  Birth Spiral  'Sonic Hedgehog' alters body shape  Birth Spiral  'Hijacker' gene drives high-risk neuroblastomas  Birth Spiral  How every cell knows what and where it is  Birth Spiral  New electron microscope images DNA making protein  Birth Spiral  Chewing on the mysteries of the jaw  Birth Spiral  Watching DNA interact inside a cell  Birth Spiral  How to fold your genes  Birth Spiral  EXD2 is key to mitochondria  Birth Spiral  Memory gene goes viral  Birth Spiral  How preterm birth may impact language  Birth Spiral  Frozen or fresh, IVF embryos equal in live births  Birth Spiral  A 'muscle' cancer not really in muscle  Birth Spiral  Nucleotides - not amino acids - change gene function  Birth Spiral  Identical twins have superimilar genes!  Birth Spiral  Keeping human eggs fresh with epigenetics  Birth Spiral  Callous, unemotional traits in brains of boys  Birth Spiral  Drug developed for diabetes could treat Alzheimer's  Birth Spiral  Barcoding stem cells reveals the secrets of blood  Birth Spiral  Creating mammal tissue from simple instructions  Birth Spiral  Folic acid late in pregnancy may increase allergies  Birth Spiral  Hidden gene variation drives evolution  January 2018   Birth Spiral  Overcoming poor fetal nutrition?  Birth Spiral  Fertilization triggers thousands of changes  Birth Spiral  Fish sense direction the same way we sense sound  Birth Spiral  A simple way for stem cells to become heart cells  Birth Spiral  Leukemias, the previously unknown role of 'nup98'  Birth Spiral  Stress reprograms cells  Birth Spiral  BigH1 is the key histone in male fertility  Birth Spiral  Mom's instructions set pattern for embryo  Birth Spiral  A better way to treat infertility?  Birth Spiral  How mom's diabetes affects the fetal heart  Birth Spiral  The compass in our ears  Birth Spiral  Sperm RNAs in the egg may predict successful birth  Birth Spiral  How do we recognize others?  Birth Spiral  Asthma highest in families who drink sugary drinks  Birth Spiral  Slowing the progression of muscular dystrophy  Birth Spiral  How to reverse the age-related loss of stem cells  Birth Spiral  Crowded with macromolecules, cells create a 'charge'  Birth Spiral  Linking fragile X to unregulated tissue growth  Birth Spiral  How cells rebuild after they divide  Birth Spiral  Skin color more complex than expected  Birth Spiral  A recipe for mouse ribs   December 2017   Birth Spiral  Ryk needs a chaperone  Birth Spiral  Not holding infants can leave traces on their genes  Birth Spiral  How badly do you want something? Babies can tell  Birth Spiral  New species can develop in as little as 2 generations  Birth Spiral  A cress plant's inner clock is teaching us about our own  Birth Spiral  Carefully crafted light pulses control neuron activity   Birth Spiral  Unlocking embryonic stem cells   Birth Spiral  Anti-malaria drug shows promise against Zika virus  Birth Spiral  A gene mutation that gives humans longer life  Birth Spiral  Spinning cylinders recreate nature's patterns  Birth Spiral  Finding the source of our earliest brain activity  Birth Spiral  Potential new autism drug shows promise in mice  Birth Spiral  Immune cells can treat eye disease in preemies  Birth Spiral  New skin for Hassan  Birth Spiral  Microbial murder mystery solved  Birth Spiral  Instructing cells to Stop or Go  Birth Spiral  Breast milk develops baby's social brain  Birth Spiral  Lack of oxygen, not blood flow, delays preemie brain  Birth Spiral  Babies use context to identify faces and objects  Birth Spiral  How chromosomes 'cheat' to become an egg  Birth Spiral  A model for how cells network  Birth Spiral  Fixing Duchenne muscular dystrophy  November 2017   Birth Spiral  Gene therapy restores hearing and balance  Birth Spiral  Editing RNA one letter at a time   Birth Spiral  You are the result of what your ancestors survived  Birth Spiral  Infection raises risk of preeclampsia related stroke  Birth Spiral  In late pregnancy, sleep on your side not your back  Birth Spiral  Childhood stress may biologically age pregnant moms  Birth Spiral  What makes breast cancer more aggressive?  Birth Spiral  The protein key to regulating cell growth  Birth Spiral  Fever in early pregnancy causes birth defects  Birth Spiral  Diet supplement dampens brain seizures  Birth Spiral  Preeclampsia more frequent with asthma sufferers  Birth Spiral  Lactation hormone helps a mother emotionally attach  Birth Spiral  Preeclampsia triggered by an overdose of DLX5 gene  Birth Spiral  Editing mice to study human leukemia  Birth Spiral  Mapping mouse brains shows gender differences  Birth Spiral  Finding a brain/body connection  Birth Spiral  Can we alter the leading cause of miscarriages?  Birth Spiral  Fragile X protein's new role gives treatment clues  Birth Spiral  Upf3b gene underlies intellectual disability  Birth Spiral  Umbilical cord stem cells treat heart failure?  Birth Spiral  Two proteins may affect 1 in 10 miscarriages  October 2017   Birth Spiral  The missing link in diabetes  Birth Spiral  Scarring critically impairs regeneration  Birth Spiral  Cell economics 101  Birth Spiral  New approach for mRNA delivery  Birth Spiral  Can bad Wnt signaling derail brain growth?  Birth Spiral  Oct4 gene key to human embryo development  Birth Spiral  Our genes are changing!  Birth Spiral  Do fuit flies have emotions?  Birth Spiral  How two proteins regulate and maintain neurons  Birth Spiral  Reversing cleft palate in-utero  Birth Spiral  TAZ sends 'mixed signals  Birth Spiral  Men wanting to be dads should be careful  Birth Spiral  Fathers can influence the sex of their offspring  Birth Spiral  Six genes linked to preterm birth in landmark study  Birth Spiral  Human glial cells make mice think faster  Birth Spiral  New insight into building our nervous system  Birth Spiral  RSF1 a key factor in silencing genes  Birth Spiral  Older wombs linked to complications in pregnant mice  Birth Spiral  The virtual embryo  Birth Spiral  Pregnant immune system is precisely timed  Birth Spiral  How the embryo attaches  September 2017   Birth Spiral  Going GA GA for CLAMP  Birth Spiral  Mice retinal cells regenerated  Birth Spiral  Your gut eats before you do  Birth Spiral  Sugars in mother's milk a new class of antibacterials  Birth Spiral  Exoskeleton improves walking in children with CP  Birth Spiral  "Nerve pruning" - Its a thing  Birth Spiral  Untangling the brain  Birth Spiral  Zika stifles pregnant women's immune system  Birth Spiral  Epigenetic mistakes can be passed on for generations  Birth Spiral  'How to' make a male mouse  Birth Spiral  A 'How To' guide for producing hair'  Birth Spiral  Why do some people never get the flu?  Birth Spiral  Antimicrobials cross placenta affecting baby  Birth Spiral  Converting skin to blood vessels in a single touch  Birth Spiral  Babies associate words with content — through sleep  Birth Spiral  A surprising epigenetic adaptation  Birth Spiral  Noisy cells are a good thing  Birth Spiral  How cigarette smoking damage is done  Birth Spiral  Science corrects a faulty gene in embryos  Birth Spiral  Stem cells created to treat lung conditions  Birth Spiral  New technique to repair spinal cord injuries  Birth Spiral  Intellectual disability may not need to last a lifetime  Birth Spiral  One protein impacts 200 others in sperm development  August 2017   Birth Spiral  How does that Aha! moment happen in the brain?  Birth Spiral  How to make feathers  Birth Spiral  Epigenetics affects generations  Birth Spiral  The evolution of menopause?  Birth Spiral  Sex cells evolved to pass on quality mitochondria  Birth Spiral  A vaccine that could prevent Type 1 Diabetes  Birth Spiral  How telomeres protect cells from aging  Birth Spiral  Clues link lack of carnitine with mild autism  Birth Spiral  Can we prevent aging?  Birth Spiral  Can we prevent aging?  Birth Spiral  Malaria drug protects fetus from Zika infection  Birth Spiral  Vaccines protect mice against Zika virus  Birth Spiral  RNA molecules live short lives  Birth Spiral  RNA misprocessing causes muscle weakness disorder  Birth Spiral  Cells constantly remix their genes  Birth Spiral  General anesthesia disrupts infant brain development  Birth Spiral  Drinking alcohol in pregnancy can affect multiple generations  Birth Spiral  How plants grow like human brains  Birth Spiral  Adenosine may extend learning of language and music  Birth Spiral  RNA fragments defend 'naked' genes  Birth Spiral  Spinal cord development sets up all neurons  Birth Spiral  We are still passing flame retardants on to our babies  Jul 2017   Birth Spiral  Acetaminophen in pregnancy reduces masculinity?  Birth Spiral  How brain cells reach their target  Birth Spiral  A bird's eye view  Birth Spiral  Genes, ozone, and autism  Birth Spiral  Uterine fluid tells fetus about mom's world  Birth Spiral  New clues linking pre-eclampsia and cholesterol  Birth Spiral  Babies' DNA affects mothers' risk for pre-eclampsia  Birth Spiral  Time and space in brain development and disease  Birth Spiral  Elegant switch controls transition from egg to embryo  Birth Spiral  Meditation and yoga can 'reverse' the damage of stress  Birth Spiral  Child leukemias are mistakes in DNA rearrangement  Birth Spiral  LRP4 molecule critical to synapse  Birth Spiral  How the brain recognizes what the eye sees  Birth Spiral  3D skin fixes backbone birth defect in rat pups  Birth Spiral  How cells divide tasks and conquer work  Birth Spiral  Gene cross-talk is key to a cell's balance  Birth Spiral  But for the hair of a fly...  Birth Spiral  Gene therapy could 'turn off' severe allergies Birth Spiral  The machinery of memory Birth Spiral  Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals  Jun 2017   Birth Spiral  TET1 protein, congenital defects and late-onset diseases Birth Spiral  Answers for kids with inherited kidney disease   Birth Spiral  A key gene contributes to common birth defects Birth Spiral  Preterm infant lung disease may be predictable Birth Spiral  Regeneration and how blood vessels are built Birth Spiral  Putting the brakes on cancer Birth Spiral  Sleep apnea may increase pregnancy complications Birth Spiral  Zika could be a factor in more pregnancies Birth Spiral  Unlocking key to infertility in older women Birth Spiral  A body's guiding light Birth Spiral  Deciphering a protein that protects embryos Birth Spiral  Natural selection against genetic damage is ongoing Birth Spiral  Male/female brain reacts differently to cardiac stress  Birth Spiral  Why does nature rely on sex for reproduction?   Birth Spiral  CRISPR enzymes might also diagnose disease   Birth Spiral  How epigenetic changes in DNA can be good or bad   Birth Spiral  First synthetic retina for visually impaired   Birth Spiral  Zika antibody offers hope for a vaccine   Birth Spiral  New tool is a roadmap of cell development   Birth Spiral  Enzyme could help fight against mid-life obesity   Birth Spiral  Stem cells help identify causes for Angelman's   Birth Spiral  How the HUWE1 protein impacts human intelligence   Birth Spiral  Human umbilical blood rejuvenates old mice brains  May 2017   Birth Spiral  Mouse teeth give insight into tissue regeneration  Birth Spiral  Can we now turn off allergy-sensitive cells?  Birth Spiral  Fertility can hinge on sperm swimming conditions  Birth Spiral  Neurons live long life in the gut of adult mice  Birth Spiral  Which facial features are most controlled by genetics?  Birth Spiral  Do you speak 'Terpene'?  Birth Spiral  Secrets of menstrual cycle and early pregnancy  Birth Spiral  Sensory cells give hope to restoring hearing  Birth Spiral  'Lab on a chip' may reduce preterm births  Birth Spiral  Game helps us understand animal camouflage  Birth Spiral  Fighting malaria with math  Birth Spiral  Multitasking secrets of RNA-binding   Birth Spiral  Progesterone and bisexuality: Is there a link?   Birth Spiral  Low birth weight babies near coal-fired power plant  Birth Spiral  Bad diet in pregnancy 'programs' bad health later  Birth Spiral  Stem cells from pee?  Birth Spiral  Mouse dad's diet affects his pups' mental health  Birth Spiral  Earliest embryonic stem cells identified  Birth Spiral  Why female fertility declines with age  Birth Spiral  Older mothers are better mothers    Apr 2017   Birth Spiral  How to calculate an immune response  Birth Spiral  Stop eating! You are full!  Birth Spiral  Sperm tails are "motorized" and need all their parts  Birth Spiral  A link science didn't catch  Birth Spiral  A giant leap forward to pill for anti-aging  Birth Spiral  A 'three-hit' theory of autism  Birth Spiral Defect in non-coding DNA can impair language  Birth Spiral Gene mutation may explain female infertility  Birth Spiral Potential clinical test and treatment for preterm birth  Birth Spiral Male infertility may be due to failure of calcium signal  Birth Spiral Can we stop neurons signaling their own death? Birth Spiral GABA may be key to regenerating human retinas Birth Spiral Will mammals ever be able to regenerate tissues? Birth Spiral What is a "brain organoid" and why do we need it? Birth Spiral A mouse 'embryo' made from stem cells  Birth Spiral Why staph, a common bacteria, induces severe illness  Birth Spiral A gene that makes the sexes look different Birth Spiral Cell fusion proteins link sex and viruses Birth Spiral Can math predict our growth and diseases? Birth Spiral A gene that reinforces maternal attachment? Birth Spiral 50+ year old protein paradox solved Birth Spiral Daylight savings can increase IVF miscarriages Birth Spiral Listeria may be a serious miscarriage threat   Mar 2017   Birth Spiral Neurons can choose to activate mom or dad's genes Birth Spiral Can damage of dementia and Alzheimer's be undone? Birth Spiral Unexpected influence on how stem cells divide  Birth Spiral How to normalise synapses in autism & schizophrenia  Birth Spiral Autism biomarkers found in infants  Birth Spiral Gene 'switch' clues us to origins of fine motor skills  Birth Spiral Why are you left or right handed? Birth Spiral Can cancer meds treat a group of genetic disorders? Birth Spiral The amazing uterus Birth Spiral 'Goldilocks' rules may govern genes in our evolution Birth Spiral Everyday chemicals threaten pregnant women Birth Spiral Contraceptive for male monkeys. Humans next? Birth Spiral 83 New genes for height found Birth Spiral Autism may begin at earliest brain development Birth Spiral  Preemies don't use 'top-down sensory prediction' Birth Spiral Stronger muscles for newborn babies Birth Spiral Protein in womb plays lifelong role in bone health Birth Spiral Breathing molecule discovered Birth Spiral Ovo protein same across species  Birth Spiral  Chromosome Traffic Cop   Feb 2017  Birth Spiral  The Meiosis Tango Birth Spiral  Scientists create human/pig chimera Birth Spiral  Statins critical in formation of embryo Birth Spiral  Genetic engineering tinkers with genes Birth Spiral  In proteins, shape matters Birth Spiral  Can we rescue injured brains? Birth Spiral  Hunger switches on predatory brain instincts Birth Spiral  New mouse model joins the fight against Zika Birth Spiral  Why older mothers likely face birth complications Birth Spiral  Salmonella directs brain tumors to self destruct Birth Spiral  Key molecular enzyme locates sites of DNA breaks Birth Spiral  Epstein-Barr virus related to Hodgkin's lymphoma Birth Spiral  New hope for Prader-Willi syndrome Birth Spiral  Early trial results shrink pediatric neural tumors  Birth Spiral  Single target for pre-malignant bone marrow cancers? Birth Spiral  Missing protein may explain Sudden Infant Death Birth Spiral  Brain's facial recognition area grows in adulthood Birth Spiral  RNA pathway plays key role in our lifespan Birth Spiral  The role of mTORC1 in TSC and epilepsy Birth Spiral  Low-carb diet relieves a form of intellectual disability Birth Spiral  Brain white matter predicts cognitive functions by age 1 and 2  Birth Spiral  How to Turn White Fat Brown   Jan 2017  Birth Spiral  nSR100 protein's influence on autism Birth Spiral  The Molecular basis for hydrocephalus Birth Spiral  Controlling gene activity in human development Birth Spiral  The Goldilocks effect in aging Birth Spiral  Figuring out how one X-chromosome is silenced Birth Spiral  Gesturing can boost children's creative thinking Birth Spiral  New finding reveals battle behind our genes Birth Spiral  We may not have lifelong immunity to toxoplasmosis Birth Spiral  Kangaroo mothering helps preemies 20 years later Birth Spiral  Secret to smart shopping: The right parenting style Birth Spiral  Left hand does know what the right hand is doing Birth Spiral  What makes a neuron a neuron? Birth Spiral  Designing switches to control cell fate Birth Spiral  Neural stem cells transport proteins just like RNA Birth Spiral  Turning off Asthma Attacks  Birth Spiral  China's one-child policy, likely overblown, now gone Birth Spiral  Links between epilepsy drugs and birth defects Birth Spiral  Low vitamin D in newborns increases risk MS later  Birth Spiral  Toddlers can tell when others hold 'false beliefs'  Birth Spiral  Protein that allows our brain and muscles to talk  Birth Spiral  Tracking development of individual blood stem cells  Birth Spiral  Having last baby after 35? Mental sharpness increases  Dec 2016Birth Spiral  Mouse embryos put in suspended animation for weeks  Birth Spiral  Tissue damage key to cell reprogramming  Birth Spiral  'Princess Leia' brainwaves help store memories  Birth Spiral  Measuring the gaze between mom and her autistic baby  Birth Spiral  Lying face up pregnant could increase risk of stillbirth  Birth Spiral  Mom Rheumatoid Arthritis links to epilepsy in child  Birth Spiral  A protein that points cells in the right direction  Birth Spiral  First 3-D mathematical model of labor contractions  Birth Spiral  Genes for speech may not be limited to humans  Birth Spiral  Insulin resistance reversed by removal of Gal3 protein  Birth Spiral  B12 deficiency can increase risk for type 2 diabetes  Birth Spiral  Non-invasive prenatal test at five weeks of pregnancy?  Birth Spiral  Heart disease, leukemia links to dysfunctional nucleus  Birth Spiral  Blood vessels control brain growth  Birth Spiral  Antibody protects developing fetus from Zika virus  Birth Spiral  Better treatments possible for child brain cancer  Birth Spiral  Autism linked to mutations in mitochondrial DNA  Birth Spiral  Mother's blood test may predict birth complications  Birth Spiral  Essential mouse genes give insight into human disease Birth Spiral  Newborns given dextrose gel avoid hypoglycaemia Birth Spiral  Mitochondria divide differently than once thought  Nov 2016 Birth Spiral  Customizing vitamin D may benefit pregnant women Birth Spiral  Antibody breaks leukemia's hold Birth Spiral  Strong, steady forces needed for cell division Birth Spiral "Fixing" energy signals to treat mitochondrial disease Birth Spiral  How eggs get the wrong number of chromosomes Birth Spiral Fatal preemie disease due to mitochondrial failure Birth Spiral Zika virus spreads during brain growth spurts Birth Spiral Short jump from single-cell to multi-cell animals   Birth Spiral Brainstem and visual cortex control our eyes Birth Spiral Embryos make sex cells in their first two weeks Birth Spiral Mom's BMI may affect biological age of her baby Birth Spiral Two distinct cell types can initiate Crohn's disease Birth Spiral Potential treatment of newborns via amniotic fluid? Birth Spiral Infants use their prefrontal cortex to learn Birth Spiral 'Amplifier' helps make connections in the fetal brain Birth Spiral Neurons migrate throughout infancy Birth Spiral Calcium triggers stem cells to generate bone Birth Spiral How evolution has given us 5 fingers Birth Spiral New links between genes and bigger brains Birth Spiral New links between genes and bigger brains Birth Spiral Progesterone in contraceptives promotes flu healing Birth Spiral ZIKA in Men? "No procreation for 6 months" Birth Spiral  Genetically modified baby boy - with 3 parents Oct 2016 Birth Spiral Genetic variations that cause skull-fusion disorders Birth Spiral Heart defect genes both inside and outside the heart Birth Spiral Cesarean baby 15% more likely to become obese Birth Spiral Male primes female for reproduction - but at a cost Birth Spiral Why Tardigrades Are So Indestructible Birth Spiral Mouse bone marrow cells reduce miscarriage? Birth Spiral How maternal genes give control to embryonic genes Birth Spiral Stem cells may halt Multiple Sclerosis symptoms Birth Spiral Stem cells may halt Multiple Sclerosis symptoms Birth Spiral Gene linked to infertility in male mice Birth Spiral High food availability slows down cell aging Birth Spiral Zika brain injury therapy must start at time of bite Birth Spiral How GBS bacteria can cause preterm birth Birth Spiral Scientists make embryos from non-egg cells Birth Spiral Placenta pivotal in influencing pregnancy outcome Birth Spiral How does a cell initiate DNA repair Birth Spiral lncRNA structure affects its function Birth Spiral Cell fate a result of genetic tugs of war Birth Spiral  Unlocking first steps in organ and tissue development Birth Spiral  Stem cells differ in mice, monkeys, and humans Birth Spiral Chemicals from fracking may harm fertility Birth Spiral Checkmating the "Red King Theory" Birth Spiral  Morrbid gene fights infection havoc   Sep 2016 Birth Spiral  A protein that promotes the breakdown of fat Birth Spiral Immune cells active in brain development  Birth Spiral Face shape is in our genes Birth Spiral Two proteins preserve vital genetic information Birth Spiral A molecular alarm clock wakes resting eggs Birth Spiral Risk factors for preterm birth can be changed Birth Spiral Zika infection may affect adult brain cells Birth Spiral How fish fins became fingers Birth Spiral Plastic BPS chemical harms human egg cells Birth Spiral Customizing breast milk for premature children Birth Spiral Mom in Single Family NICU room is best for preemies Birth Spiral Jaw-dropping research explains how mouth forms Birth Spiral A vaccine for strep throat and rheumatic fever? Birth Spiral Is there a 'mother's curse' ? Birth Spiral Non-Zika microcephaly helps explain brain growth Birth Spiral Tall or short, thick or thin what affects limb size? Birth Spiral Signals that trigger labor and delivery Birth Spiral Breakthrough in how stem cells become specialized Birth Spiral The force is strong — with embryo cells Birth Spiral Common diabetes drug may help prevent preterm birth Birth Spiral Origin of the female orgasm Birth Spiral Breastfeeding builds better brains Birth Spiral Embryonic gene, Nanog, can reverse cell aging Aug 2016 Birth Spiral Makeup therapy in a down economy Birth Spiral Cinnamon may be a fragrant medicine for the brain Birth Spiral A molecule for making friends  Pyramid cells cluster, vibrate and signal our brain  How environmental stresses cause birth defects  Virus found in women with unexplained infertility Pregnant nicotine exposure higher than reported Cells send out stop/go signals to extend nerves Anatomy of a decision Sound waves to separate twin placentas?  Selfish mitochondria implicated in diseases Powering up: growing neurons make an energy jump  Virus in pregnancy linked to austim disorders Bipolar disorder link to striatum brain region Epigenetics could explain puzzle of diabetes inheritance  Many common chemicals endanger brain development Children's immune cells may explain all their illnesses "Feeling good" stimulates immune system How the Pentagone protein controls development   Why does mitochondria DNA only come from mom?  Finding human development's first gear  July 2016    Study shows Zika infection longer in pregnancy  Daughters of obese mouse dads risk breast cancer CDC clinical trial for experimental Zika vaccine   Saint Louis University to launch Zika vaccine trial    Loss of essential protein linked to hydrocephalus Low thyroid in pregnancy risks schizophrenia in baby Teen poor attention control risk for anxiety disorders Pregnant diet can affect multiple generations New insights uncovered in Prader-Willi syndrome   Breastmilk best for premature baby's heart Gene mutation found explaining multiple sclerosis   Individuals respond differently to Zika?  Moving can be hazardous to your child's health   How melanin gives color to skin, hair and eyes Babies really are cute!   Your biological clock has a time stamp    Maternal effects of smoking continue long after birth   A brain clock keeps our memories ticking    Gene sequencing diagnoses rare newborn diseases The developmental origins of culture How the brain makes — and breaks — a habit Jun 2016  Money really does matter in relationships    Executive power — developes from the nursery  Can lifespan be extended by point of view?  Mitochondrial DNA therapy still imperfect  Eating fruit prenatally boosts babies' cognition  BPA in pregnancy can put baby on course to obesity  Genes for nose shape identified  Neurons must wriggle to reach their final destination  Atlas of Human Malformation Syndromes being created  Fathers' age and lifestyle linked to birth defects A safe way to deliver drugs to the placenta  Zika causes neural stem cells to self-destruct  Scientists map brain to decode inner thoughts  You are what you eat!  Twin study finds gut microbiomes run in families  Another reason to breastfeed Breast milk fed preemies show larger brain growth An aggregate of protein in nerve cells can cause ALS  How did human limbs evolve?  Asynchronous waves key to embryo development  A cell's 'fuel gauge' promotes healthy development    Safe, inexpensive chemical reverses progeria  Confused cell signals lead to genetic disorders May 2016| Experimental drug cancels affect of Fragile X gene  Preschool nurturing boosts child's brain growth  Too much 'noise' can affect brain development  Human patterns follow the same cues as bacteria  The unique biology of human breast milk  Clues to how cells repair broken DNA First protein crystal structure corrects wrong theory  Deletions on chromosome 22, one cause of autism? Microvesicles for brain radiation recovery?  New type of cell death may help neurons regenerate  Single-cell embryos can be chimeras  Trophoblast cells unlikely entry point for Zika  Gene found for cleft palate  An overfed fetus can become an overweight teen  Three generations affected by one DDT exposure  How early female human embryos control X  Abnormalities in early embryos may self correct  How to prevent asthma in your newborn?    Protein on neural stem cell is hijacked by Zika virus  Fragile X in mice responds to experimental drug Born to run? Apr 2016   Unraveling stem cells    Rewrite the text books!   Fetal or placental cells? Precision medicine targets Lupus Cell 'rejuvenation' relies on telomeres PKU effect on brain more extensive than thought  A possible treatment for autism-like symptoms Complex learning dismantles barriers in the brain Can we turn off Alzheimer's disease?  A new kind of stem cell? Genes can cause neurological diseases  Brown fat in adults follows circadian rhythm  Mom's bacterial infection can change fetal brain  Zika virus breakthrough  Lack of stem cells causes recurring miscarriages  A first: earliest stages of human stem cell lines  One microRNA may affect many neuro disorders  Common gene links obesity to diabetes Perception of constant stress is passed on... Snail shells help solve origins of body symmetry  Trimmer snips jumping genes  Mom's high alcohol level disrupts neonatal brain  Amino acids help kids overcome fetal malnutrition  Mar 2016   Zika virus linked to stillbirth, loss of brain tissue  How to regenerate peripheral nerves  How the nervous system trims its branches   Teaching stem cells to build muscle  'Pump' mechanism splits DNA for copying by RNA Stressed dads give offspring high blood sugar Cell division errors: infertility, disorders and cancers Copper key to brain cell development Bioelectric signals influence facial symmetry   Potential to treat hypertrophic cardiomyopathy   Fluorescent proteins light up living cells   Tuning the volume on gene expression  Linking fetal to adult brain disorders  A quick, simple way to generate neural crest cells  New drug target for Rett syndrome  RNA quick — Protein slow Mitochondria trigger cell aging  How to precisely regulate RNA polymerase? New app helps doctors predict preterm birth Found - protein that turns off biological clock Virus in pregnancy causes autism-like behavior Feb 2016    A gene that allows for a new species?  3 Autism-linked molecules wire up neurons   Donor's genome impacts iPS cell outcomes  What you eat can influence how you sleep   Brain receptor regulates fat burning in cells Diverse gut microbes increase infection resistance  Zika virus, linked to birth defects, is spreading   Eat fish in pregnancy to improve baby's brain   Turning epigenetic marks OFF!  Cell signal strength turns on early stem cells   Slow stem cell division causes small brain?   Healing muscular dystrophy with CRISPR   Of protein kinases, embryos and cancer  Can having more children slow down aging? Uterine microorganisms may set stage for disease     A mathematical model for animal stripes   Physics attempts to explain why stem cells move  Epigenetic change leads to cerebellum circuitry   Id tags define developing neural circuits   Mechanism for how organs branch found   How to multiply teeth!   Jan 2016