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Oct 25, 2013--------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

What is it about your face?
The human face is as unique as a fingerprint, no one else looks exactly like you. But what is it that makes facial morphology so distinct? Berkeley Lab researchers provide new insight into why each human face is unique.

Cells from grafted limb take on molecular ‘fingerprint’ of new location
Cells triggering tissue regeneration that are taken from one limb and grafted onto another acquire the molecular “fingerprint,” or identity, of their new location, UC Irvine developmental biologists have discovered.

How do humans and other mammals get so brainy?
Researchers put on their thinking caps to explain how neural stem and progenitor cells turn into neurons and related cells called glia.

Oct 24, 2013--------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Genes in mitochondria have disproportionate effect
Plant and animal cells carry most of their genes on chromosomes in the nucleus. But in Arabidopsis, they also contain a small number of genes in the mitochondria outside the nucleus — which affect chemicals found in its leaves equal in proportion to nuclear genes.

Flies distinguish scent using neuron 'claws' in brain
The smell of an orange, a lemon, and a grapefruit, each has strong acidic scent mixed with sweetness. Yet each is distinguishable from the other. They smell similar because they share many chemical compounds. How does the brain tell them apart?

Cell movement directed by two types of proteins
Cell biologists have teased apart two pieces of the cell machinery that gets cells to move. Cell projections that act like hands to help a cell "crawl," must be initiated by a protein network inside the cell that can also make it "ruffle" or move spontaneously.

Oct 23, 2013--------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Breast milk key to protecting babies from HIV?
A substance in breast milk that neutralizes HIV and may protect babies from acquiring HIV from their infected mothers has been identified for the first time by researchers at Duke Medicine.

Changing mature cells into embryonic-like stem cells
Bioengineers at the University of California, Berkeley, have shown that physical cues can replace certain chemicals when nudging mature cells back to a pluripotent stage, capable of becoming any cell type in the body.

Possible treatment for rare brain disorder?
Knowing how neurons are generated is vital to providing treatment for neurological disorders such as Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), a rare genetic disease causing tumors in the brain and other vital organs. New research may reveal how autism, epilepsy and cognitive impairment arise from abnormal generation of neurons.

Oct 22, 2013--------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

Stem cells can repair inflammatory bowel disease
A source of gut stem cells that can repair one type of inflammatory bowel disease has been identified in mice.

Cohesins + Pds5 protein = split chromosomes
Pds5 proteins modify cohesins ensuring the precise pulling apart of chromosomes during cell division. Understanding how cohesins are regulated can improve diagnosis and treatment for those with Cornella de Lange Syndrome and for some cancers.

2 genetic wrongs make a biochemical right
Genetic mutation found to restore translational balance in mice. A research result suggests a prime cause of Fragile X syndrome may be an over production of protein in the brain. If restoration of this balance is possible, normal neurologic function might be restored.

Oct 21, 2013--------News ArchiveLatest research covered daily, archived weekly

FOX P2 gene mutations linked to Autism
Zebra finches provide a useful model to study the neural mechanisms underlying speech and language in humans as research in the species links the FOXP2 gene, key to song development in the zebra finch, to similar human speech-language development in humans.

Brain may flush out toxins during sleep
NIH-funded study suggests sleep clears brain of damaging molecules associated with neurodegeneration.

Increase in donor eggs for in vitro
Between 2000 and 2010 in the United States the number of donor eggs used for in vitro fertilization increased, and outcomes for births from those donor eggs improved.


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