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True Developmental TimelineFetal sexual organs visibleLungs begin to produce surfactantInner Ear Bones HardenBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemBrain surface convolutions beginSensory brain waves beginBone marrow begins making blood cellsFingerprints and toeprints beginFertilization3rd Trimester - Infant Period1st Trimester - Embryonic Period
second trimester: the fetal period
roll over chart for explanation of fetal developmental progress
maternal symptoms...
and possible causes...
Nausea and exhaustion may slow down and appetite return as hormone levels begin to stabalize:
• The hormone estrogen may increase 100% over normal amounts before pregnancy.
• The hormone progesterone increases in pregnancy to relax the uterine muscles, preventing contractions that try and repel a foreign object - the implanting embryo. Progesterone also relaxes the stomach and intestines, leading to excess stomach acids and possible diarrhea.
• The hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) appears in response to fertilization of the egg. The syncytiotrophoblast cells (the first cells of the placenta) make hCG spike again during implantation. hCG may, in fact, prevent the mother's immune system from attacking embryonic cells.
Uterus expanding: Fetal kidneys and urinary tract start producing urine, releasing it into the amniotic fluid. The fetal liver begins secreting bile, and the spleen begins to aid in the production of red blood cells. By week 20 - the fetal digestive system produces meconium, a black, tar-like substance that are its first few bowel movements. To protect its skin from the amniotic fluid, the fetus is coated in a white greasy substance called vernix caseosa.
Swelling of the ankles and feet: Edema, or fluid retention: The enlarging uterus presses on the veins into the lower body, interfering with the return of blood through the legs and pelvis back to the heart. This makes swelling (edema) in the legs common. Varicose veins commonly develop in the legs and in the area around the vaginal opening (vulva), and can be uncomfortable. Varicose veins may disappear after delivery.
Severe swelling in the hands and face: Could indicate Pre-eclampsia, a dangerous condition in which the placenta is prevented from getting enough blood.
Varicose veins: Valves malfunction under increased weight adn blood pressure, allowing blood to pool in the legs.
Pregnant women appear to "glow:"
Increased blood flow to the face.
Stretch marks - thin pink or brown lines on the belly and over the hips - may appear & often fade after the birth. Linea nigra, or "life line" can occur between the mother's bellybutton and top of the pubic bone:
Increase in skin pigmentation, or melanin.
Skin increases oil production.
Breasts swell: Mammary ducts are preparing to produce milk and may discharge the yellowish, colostrum, nutrient-rich substance to feed the baby during its first days of life.
Nasal congestion: Increased blood flows through mucous membranes due to increase in all bodily fluid.
Leg cramps: Uterus expansion puts pressure on veins
Bladder infections: Possibly the increase in hCG which suppresses the maternal immune system to protect the fetus.

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