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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
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September 24, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts

ABOVE - the plant
Arabidopsis thaliana which served as a model for cellular

BELOW - How methylation (indicated by each letter M)
attaches to the DNA chain and turns off (silences) a gene.

WHO Child Growth Charts


Pollen Cells Have Memory Controls to Prevent Jumping Genes

Mechanisms that silence mobile genes are active in pollen sex cells

In any living organism, all cells have the same DNA,
but each cell's identity is defined by the combination
of genes that are turned on or off,
at any given moment in time.

In animals, this cellular memory is erased between
generations, so that the new egg has no memory
thus has the potential to become any type of cell.

In flowering plants, on the contrary, cellular memory passes from generation to generation, with potentially harmful implications for the development of new plants.

In the latest issue of the journal Cell, scientists from Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (IGC), in Portugal, and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL), in the USA, describe a novel mechanism whereby potentially mutagenic sequences of mobile DNA are turned -off (silenced) in the pollen grain and in seeds, to avoid damage to new plants.

One of the main mechanisms that contributes to cell
memory is the addition of a chemical group
- the methyl group - to DNA sequences
(a process called methylation).

DNA methylation turns a gene off.

These changes in gene expression that are heritable across generations, but not directly written in the DNA sequence, are called epigenetics.

Using the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana, Jörg Becker, José Feijó and their teams, analysed the genome of pollen grains and their precursor cells, the microspores, and pinpointed the sequences of DNA that were methylated.

Pollen grains contain two sperm cells (the sexual cells) and an accompanying vegetative nucleus, whose DNA is not passed on to the next generation.

Thanks to the technique developed by the IGC team, the researchers were able to separate the two sperm cells and the vegetative nucleus of the pollen grain and look at their methylation status separately.

Joseph Calarco and Filipe Borges observed that DNA methylation is largely maintained in the microspores and pollen grains. But there are differences between the 2 different cell types.

In the pollen grain, some DNA sequences are methylated in sperm cells but not in the vegetative nucleus, and vice versa. Amongst these non-methylated genes are mobile sequences of DNA [capable of moving], called transposable elements, which could become active and lead to mutagenic effects.

The research team discovered that the situation is rescued by small sequences of RNA (called siRNAs) that restore methylation to transposable elements in the embryo.

Indeed, they found siRNA in sperm cells that silence [turn OFF] the transposable elements even before fertilisation, in at least some cases.

Transposable elements are very common in all
known genomes. In the human genome, for example,
they make up 45% of the total genome.

They are involved in the evolution of genomes,
since when integrated back into the genome they
can affect the function and organization of other genes.

However, transposable elements are mutagens,
their activation needs to be under tight control,
as it may be harmful to the cell and the organism.
If such harmful mutations occur in sex cells,
they will be transmitted to the progeny
and spread throughout the population.

Jörg Becker: "We have unveiled a mechanism in the sexual cells that can prevent the activation of potentially harmful transposable elements, while at the same time, upon fusion of sperm cell and egg cell, allowing the formation of a cell with full capacity to become any cell type, that will give rise to a new generation.

On the other hand, if female siRNAs in the egg cell do not match incoming transposable elements from the male, they might escape silencing in the developing embryo, with potentially harmful implications for the new plant that is generated.

Such an uncontrolled activation of transposable elements might at least in part explain existing hybridization barriers, in which crosses between species result in seed abortion or infertility.

Breaking such barriers would increase plant breeder's chances to improve crop species by making use of the phenomenon of hybrid vigor, by which plant offspring show qualities superior to parents, well exemplified in widely used corn and rice hybrids."

It was known that flowering plants are an exception to the rule of resetting cellular memory, since modifications may be inherited for hundreds of generations.

But the extent to which this happened in the plant sexual cells and how the epigenetic reprogramming of the genome might contribute remained unclear until now.

This newly discovered mechanism
may become a strong argument to explain
why sexual reproduction evolved and became
so prevalent in most higher organisms.

This study was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the USA, and Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), in Portugal. *Joseph P. Calarco, Filipe Borges, Mark T.A. Donoghue, Frédéric Van Ex, Pauline E. Julien, Telma Lopes, Rui Gardner, Frédéric Berger, José A. Feijó, Jörg D. Becker, Robert A. Martienssen. (2012) Reprogramming of DNA methylation in pollen guides epigenetic inheritance via small RNA. Cell.

Original article: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-09/igdc-pck091812.php