Welcome to The Visible Embryo

Home- - -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- News Alerts -Contact

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!




Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Archive
Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

Return To Top Of Page
Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Search artcles published since 2007

November 23, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts

Dr. Zhou and colleagues found that ventricular
endocardial cells are progenitors of the coronary arteries.

This illustration shows daughter cells of ventricular endocardial cells
that have formed the inner endothelium (in green) of a mature major coronary artery.

WHO Child Growth Charts


Surprise Origin for Coronary Arteries Could Speed Advances in Regenerative Medicine

During embryonic development, the all-important coronary arteries arise from cells previously considered incapable of producing them

According to scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, research carried out in mice and published today in the online edition of the journal Cell, may speed development of regenerative therapies for heart disease.

Each year, more than one million Americans undergo coronary revascularization which includes coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). During CABG, doctors remove a portion of a healthy vein, usually from a patient’s leg, then bypass diseased areas of the coronary arteries.

While the procedure has become routine and is considered relatively safe and long-lasting, the veins used during bypass do not completely mimic the arteries they bypass. They can sometimes re-clog, a process known as restenosis, requiring further procedures. Therefore, the ability to regenerate coronary arteries could usher in a new wave of more effective cardiac care.

Coronary arteries nourish heart muscle with the
nutrients and oxygen it needs for pumping.

Heart attacks occur when coronary arteries become
blocked, causing heart muscle to die. Recent studies
had suggested that during development, the coronary
arteries originate from cells of the sinus venosus
(a heart cavity that exists only in embryos) or from
the epicardium (the heart’s outermost layer).

In their study, Einstein scientists used a wide
variety of research tools to show that the coronary
arteries largely arise from cells of the endocardium,
the heart’s innermost cell layer. In particular,
the arteries arise from endocardial cells lining
the ventricles (the two large chambers of the heart).

“The prevailing wisdom was that endocardial cells are terminally differentiated, meaning they cannot become any other cell type,” said study leader Bin Zhou, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of genetics, of pediatrics, and of medicine at Einstein.“But our study shows that one population of endocardial cells is actually responsible for forming the coronary arteries.”

More specifically, ventricular endocardial cells
develop into coronary artery progenitor (precursor)
cells, which then go on to form the coronary arteries.

Dr. Zhou and his colleagues also identified a key signaling pathway involved in transforming the ventricular endocardial cells into coronary artery progenitor cells. Einstein has filed a patent application related to this research. The Nfatc1 cell technology is available for licensing.

The Einstein researchers are now trying to identify
all the signaling mechanisms that guide the
development of the coronary arteries,
with the aim of one day synthesizing healthy
coronary arteries to replace diseased ones.

“When provided with the right environmental signals, vascular progenitor cells can form functional vessels in a petri dish,” said Dr. Zhou. “If we can figure out the critical signals regulating coronary artery differentiation and formation, then perhaps we could coax ventricular endocardial cells to build new coronary arteries that can replace damaged ones—basically duplicating the way that these vessels are formed in the body,” said Dr. Zhou.

Dr. Zhou’s paper is titled, “Endocardial Cells Form the Coronary Arteries by Angiogenesis through Myocardial-Endocardial VEGF Signaling.” Other Einstein contributors are Bingruo Wu, M.D.; Zheng Zhang, Ph.D.; Wendy Lui, B.S.; Xiangjian Chen, M.D., PhD.; Yidong Wang, Ph.D.; Alyssa Chamberlain, B.S.; Brian P. O’Rourke, B.S.; David J. Sharp, Ph.D.; Deyou Zheng, Ph.D.; and Jack Lenz, Ph.D. Other contributors include Ricardo A. Moreno-Rodriguez, Ph.D. and Roger R. Markwald, Ph.D., at Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC; H. Scott Baldwin, M.D. at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN; and Ching-Pin Chang, M.D., Ph.D., at Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

The study, initiated at Vanderbilt University and completed at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (HL078881 to Dr. Zhou, HL100398 to H. Scott Baldwin, and HL85345).

About Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University

Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University is one of the nation's premier centers for research, medical education and clinical investigation. During the 2009-2010 academic year, Einstein is home to 724 M.D. students, 248 Ph.D.students, 117 students in the combined M.D./Ph.D. program, and 368 postdoctoral research fellows. The College of Medicine has 2,522 fulltime faculty members located on the main campus and at its clinical affiliates. 2011, Einstein received nearly $170 million in awards from the NIH. This includes the funding of major research centers at Einstein in diabetes, cancer, liver disease, and AIDS. Other areas where the College of Medicine is concentrating its efforts include developmental brain research, neuroscience, cardiac disease, and initiatives to reduce and eliminate ethnic and racial health disparities. Its partnership with Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital and academic medical center for Einstein, advances clinical and translational research to accelerate the pace at which new discoveries become the treatments and therapies that benefit patients. Through its extensive affiliation network involving Montefiore, Jacobi Medical Center – Einstein's founding hospital, and five other hospital systems in the Bronx, Manhattan, Long Island and Brooklyn, Einstein runs one of the largest post-graduate medical training programs in the United States, offering approximately 155 residency programs to more than 2,200 physicians in training. For more information, please visit http://www.einstein.yu.edu and follow us on Twitter @EinsteinMed.

Original article: http://www.einstein.yu.edu/news/releases/848/surprise-origin-for-coronary-arteries-could-speed-advances-in-regenerative-medicine/