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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
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Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
June 17, 2011--------News Archive

Postnatal Depression Linked to Depression in Child
The effects of maternal depression on the likelihood of the child to develop depression may begin as early as infancy.

First Diagnostic Test for Hereditary Child's Disease
A breakthrough in genetic research has uncovered the defect behind a rare hereditary child’s disease that inhibits the body’s ability to break down vitamin D.

Walking, Sex, Spicy Food Favored to Bring On Labor
Near the end of pregnancy, some women take it upon themselves to try to induce labor, mostly by walking, having sex, eating spicy food or stimulating their nipples.


June 16, 2011--------News Archive

Effects of Premature Birth Can Reach Into Adulthood
Premature infants are less healthy, have more social and school struggles and face a greater risk of heart-health problems in adulthood.

Mouse Genetics Are A Resource For Human Genetics
Mouse gene knockouts will empower mammalian gene studies for a generation.


June 15, 2011--------News Archive

Taming the Molecule's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Two forms of a molecule are called enantiomers and can have radically different properties in biology. Thalidomide is a good example of how different forms of the same molecule can have disastrous consequences.

Fear Activates Young, Immature Infant Brain Cells
Fear burns memories into our brain, and new research by University of California, Berkeley, neuroscientists explains how.


June 14, 2011--------News Archive

Malnourishment - Pregnant or Lactating - Key to Diseases in Children
Study in primates establishes critical role that undernourishment in mothers-to-be and lactating females has in creating type 2 diabetes in offspring.

We Are All Mutants
The first whole-genome measure of human mutation predicts 60 new mutations exist within each of us at birth.

Canadian Women On Technology Used in Childbirth
This generation's choice of C-section does not reflect knowledge of the procedure's complications to mother and child.


June 13, 2011--------News Archive

Cell Division Linked to Oxygen Levels
Johns Hopkins reports that the MCM proteins, which promote cell division, also directly control the oxygen-sensing HIF-1 protein which controls cell division.

Many Genetic Keys Needed to Unlock Autism
Hundreds of small genetic variations are associated with autism spectrum disorders, including an area of DNA that may be key to understanding why humans are social animals.

Children Eschew the Fat - If Dad Says So
Dad's choice of where to eat could literally tip the scales on his children's health.

Mom's B Vitamins Lower Child's Colorectal Cancer
Mice born to mothers who are fed a diet supplemented with B vitamins are less likely to develop intestinal tumors

WHO Child Growth Charts

In the longest running U.S. study of premature infants who are now 23 years old, University of Rhode Island Professor of Nursing Mary C. Sullivan has found some stunning data.

Premature infants are less healthy, have more social and school struggles and face a greater risk of heart-health problems in adulthood.

Sullivan has also found that supportive, loving parents and nurturing school environments can mitigate the effects of premature birth. She also found that premature babies are resilient and have a strong drive to succeed.

A research scientist at Women and Infants Hospital and an adjunct professor of pediatrics at the Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Sullivan has been studying a cohort of babies born prematurely at Women and Infants Hospital in the 1980s for 21 years. Since the lead study was launched by Brown University, the research has attracted a total of $7 million in federal grants. The study subjects are now 23 years old.

The latest investigation, funded by a $2.4 million National Institutes of Health grant to URI, is examining whether stresses experienced by pre-term babies lead to illnesses when they are adults.

In March, Sullivan presented her early findings at the Eastern Nursing Research Society in Philadelphia. Sullivan's co-investigator, cardiologist Jim Zeigler, will present their findings at the 27th Congress meeting of the European Group of Pediatric Work Physiology at Britain's University of Exeter Sept. 19 - 23.

Her latest work is based on the "fetal origins hypothesis," which states that the stress response of pre-term infants, called the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, is a mechanism underlying fetal origins of adult chronic diseases.

Pre-term birth sets up a stress response, which produces higher levels of the hormone cortisol, which is essential for regulating metabolism, immune response, vascular tone and homeostasis, Sullivan said. Her research is comparing cortisol levels in the adults who were born pre-term versus those born full-term and is assessing if cortisol levels among adults who were the sickest as premature infants are higher than those less medically and neurologically compromised.

Very low birth weight, repeated blood draws, surgery and breathing issues are among the major factors in stress levels for pre-term infants.

Among the early findings:

Male gender and birth weight affect early adult pulmonary function.

The poorest pulmonary outcomes and higher resting blood pressure were for those born at extremely low birth weight.

Additional health data for age 23 years has not been analyzed yet, but data from age 17 revealed that physical health, growth, and subtle neurological outcomes were poorer in the preterm groups.

Infants with medical and neurological impacts had a 24 to 32 percent increase in acute and chronic health conditions.

Continued monitoring of adults born prematurely is warranted, not only during young adulthood but as they reach middle age.

Sullivan said one approach her team will undertake will be Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) Risk Score at age 23 because it is strongly associated with coronary artery disease 10 to 15 years later.

"Continued monitoring of preterm survivors will enhance our understanding of the relative impact of prematurity and neonatal intensive care on later adult cardiopulmonary disease," Sullivan said.

"Since the beginning of the study, we have been asking the questions, can babies self-right themselves and do they have a resiliency that helps them overcome the challenges of pre-term birth?" Sullivan said. "Are there protective factors in the environment that mitigate the effects?"

Pre-term birth also affects even those infants not medically and neurologically ill in the following ways:

Effects of pre-term birth do not disappear after age 2 or even after pre-term children catch up physically with full-term babies.

Learning disabilities and other functioning issues often do not appear in premature babies until second grade and middle school years.

Pre-term infants with no medical conditions have more learning disabilities, struggles with mathematics and need more school services than full-term babies. One of Sullivan's studies determined that at least one-third of babies born pre-term needed school services at some point during their education. Out of that group, 22 percent of the healthy pre-term babies received school services. Almost one quarter of this group had an Individualized Education Plan (special education plan governed by federal and state law), with 15 percent receiving resources, 7 percent in self-contained classroom settings, and 11 percent receiving speech and language services.

Some children of pre-term birth are less coordinated, which may be related to brain development and effects of neonatal intensive care.

They have fewer friends and boys have more difficulty in school.

On the positive side, Sullivan found:

Children who were born pre-term have a persistent drive to succeed.

Children whose mothers provided a nurturing environment and who were strong advocates for them in school performed better academically, socially and physically. These are called protective factors and they work to counter the effects of pre-term birth.

"These findings are important for parents, nurses in the neo-natal intensive care units, teachers and staff in the schools, disability services offices in colleges and primary care providers," Sullivan said. "By identifying the issues pre-term babies face in childhood, adolescence and through adulthood, we can all be better prepared to take steps to mitigate their effects."

Since the study in 1985, Sullivan, her predecessor, Margaret McGrath, URI professor emerita of nursing, and other team members, have been assessing the individuals' physical and cognitive development, social skills and school progress since. Barry Lester, professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University, began the infancy study.

The URI research began with 213 individuals at age 4. URI has been awarded five separate grants totaling $6.4 million from the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Nursing Research to continue assessing the group into adulthood. Since the research began, 96 percent of the subjects and their families have continued their participation.

Sullivan, who became a member of the research team in 1990 as a URI doctoral nursing candidate, became the principal investigator in 2002 when the test subjects reached age 17. There are five study categories, a control group of full-term healthy infants and four categories of pre-term infants. The full-term group average was 40 weeks gestation with an average birth weight of 7 pounds, 8 ounces. For the pre-term infants, the gestation range was 24 to 34 weeks, and the weight range was 1 pound, 7 ounces to 3 pounds, 15 ounces. Original article: http://www.uri.edu/news/releases/?id=5874