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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo in 1993 as a first generation internet teaching tool consolidating human embryology teaching for first year medical students.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human.

The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
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November 29, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts


Young Children and Mothers CMV Home Study


Children 3 and under who are still in diapers might be eligible to be in a study about Cytomegalovirus (CMV). Reimbursement will be given for participation

This study is being conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

For more information regarding the study, please contact us:
(404) 639-0189 or CmvHomeStudy@cdc.gov

Screening for study will take approximately 30 minutes.


CMV is spread through:

* Person to person contact (such as, kissing, sexual contact, and getting saliva or
urine on your hands and then touching your eyes, or the inside of your nose or mouth)
* Breast milk of an infected woman who is breast feeding
* Infected pregnant women can pass the virus to their unborn babies
* Blood transfusions and organ transplantations


Most infections with CMV are "silent," meaning most people who
are infected with CMV have no signs or symptoms. However,
CMV can cause disease in unborn babies.



WHO Child Growth Charts

       

Research Sheds New Light on Virus Associated with Developmental Delays and Deafness, Offering Hope for Treatment

Researchers found that as stem cells and other primitive cells mature into neurons, they become more susceptible to HCMV, which could allow them to find effective treatments for the virus and to prevent its potentially devastating consequences


A new study from the University of Pittsburgh School
of Medicine and published online in PLOS ONE
reveals that primitive human stem cells are resistant
to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV),
one of the leading prenatal causes of intellectual
disability, deafness and deformities worldwide.


“Previous studies have focused on other species and other cell types, but those studies did not evaluate what the cytomegalovirus does to human brain cells,” said Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, M.D., Ph.D., professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and senior author of the report. “This study is the first of its kind, and the first to discover that primitive stem cells are actually resistant to HCMV.”

Access to cultured human neurons, necessary to understand the pathogenic effects of HCMV, has been limited by difficulties in growing the brain cells in the laboratory. Yet through human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, researchers were able to overcome this hurdle.

The study authors derived live iPS cells by reprogramming cells called fibroblasts obtained from human skin biopsies. The iPS cells were then induced to mature through several stages into neurons, the primary cells in the brain. The researchers were able to evaluate the patterns of damage caused by HCMV on all these cells.


The research findings suggest:

• Human iPS cells do not permit a full viral replication cycle, suggesting for the first time that these cells can resist CMV infection

• CMV infection distorts iPS cell differentiation into neurons, and that may be a mechanism by which infected babies develop impairments of brain maturation and intellectual ability

• iPS-derived mature neurons are more susceptible to CMV infection and once infected show effects including defective function that have been shown in other animal studies and in other human tissues, and the neurons die a few days after infection lab studies, possibly reflecting the impact of CMV on the human brain


“The findings were quite surprising, but this is only the first in a series of studies on HCMV,” added Nimgaonkar. “There is a lot of interest in what we can do to treat the infection, and current work is already underway to screen for new drugs that could be used to fight these viruses.”


Between 50 and 80 percent of people in the U.S.
have been infected by HCMV by the time they
reach 40. Infections are rarely serious, but the
virus does not leave the body. CMV is also the
most common congenital infection in the U.S.,
and occurs when a mother contracts CMV during
pregnancy and passes the virus to her unborn child.

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, one of every 150 children are born
with CMV infection and one in five of them develop
permanent problems, such as intellectual disability,
vision and hearing loss, and seizures.


Pitt researchers are collaborating with the Drug Discovery Institute to further understand the cellular system and determine which agents are most effective against HCMV and similar viruses, and which treatments would be safe for human use.

The lead author of the report is Leonardo D’Aiuto, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh. Collaborators on this study include Roberto Di Maio, Ph.D., Brianna Heath, Giorgio Raimondi, Ph.D., Jadranka Milosevic, Ph.D., Annie M Watson, Mikhil Bamne, Ph.D., W Tony Parks, M.D., Lei Yang, Ph.D., Bo Lin, Ph.D, Toshio Miki, M.D., Ph.D., Jocelyn Danielle Mich-Basso, Etienne Sibille, Ph.D., all of the University of Pittsburgh, and Ravit Arav-Boger, M.D., Sarven Sabunciyan, Ph.D., Robert Yolken, M.D., all of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

This work was supported by grants from the Stanley Medical Research Institute, the National Institute of Mental Health (RC2 MH089859, MH62480, U01 MH85269), the National Center for Research Resources (1 UL1 RR024153), the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research and the Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh.

Original article: http://www.upmc.com/media/NewsReleases/2012/Pages/Virus-Developmental-Delays-Treatment.aspx