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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo in 1993 as a first generation internet teaching tool consolidating human embryology teaching for first year medical students.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human.

The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Search artcles published since 2007

December 4, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts


Early heart formation, as heart tube bulges and twists into chambers.
Carnegie Stage 12



Heart looping and compression into four chambers.
Carnegie Stage 13





WHO Child Growth Charts

       

Insights into Genetic Causes of Coronary Artery Disease and Heart Attacks

Largest coronary artery disease study to date identifies many new genetic regions associated with risk of heart attacks

In the largest genetic study of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) to date, researchers from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium report the identification of 15 genetic regions newly associated with the disease, bringing to 46 the number of regions associated with CAD risk.

The resulting work is published in Nature Genetics.

The team identified a further 104 independent genetic variants that are very likely to be associated with the disease, enhancing our knowledge of the genetic component that causes CAD.

They used their discoveries to identify biological pathways that underlie the disease and showed that lipid metabolism and inflammation play a significant role in CAD.


CAD and its main complication myocardial
infarction (heart attack) are one of the most
common causes of death in the world and
approximately one in five men and one in
seven women die from the disease in the
UK.

CAD has a strong inherited basis.


"Our research strengthens the argument that, for most of us, genetic risk to CAD is defined by many genetic variants, each of which has a modest affect," says Dr Panos Deloukas, co-lead author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "We went beyond traditional genetic association studies to explore likely genetic signals associated with the disease and to use the information to identify biological pathways underlying CAD.

The Consortium spanning over 180 researchers from countries across Europe (UK, Germany, Iceland, Sweden, Finland, the Netherlands, France, Italy, Greece), Lebanon, Pakistan, Korea, USA and Canada analysed DNA from over 60,000 CAD cases and 130,000 apparently unaffected people.


The researchers integrated the genetic
findings into a network analysis and found
the metabolism of fats being the most
prominent pathway linked to CAD.

The second most prominent pathway,
however, was inflammation which provides
evidence at the molecular level for the link
between inflammation and heart disease.


"The importance of the work is that while some of the genetic variants that we have identified work through known risk factors for CAD such as high blood pressure and cholesterol, many of the variants appear to work through unknown mechanisms," says Professor Nilesh Samani, co-lead author from the University of Leicester. "Understanding how these genetic variants affect CAD risk is the next goal and this could pave a way to developing new treatments for this important disease."

This study provides a useful framework for future projects to elucidate the biological processes underlying CAD and to investigate how genes work together to cause this disease.

Professor Peter Weissberg, Medical Director at the British Heart Foundation, which co-funded the research, said: "The number of genetic variations that contribute to heart disease continues to grow with the publication of each new study. This latest research further confirms that blood lipids and inflammation are at the heart of the development of atherosclerosis, the process that leads to heart attacks and strokes."


"These studies don't take us any closer to a
genetic test to predict risk of heart disease,
because this is determined by the subtle
interplay between dozens, if not hundreds,
of minor genetic variations.

The real value of these results lies in the
identification of biological pathways that
lead to the development of heart disease.

These pathways could be targets for the development
of new drug treatments in the future."

Professor Peter Weissberg
Medical Director, British Heart Foundation


Original article: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/about/press/2012/121202.html