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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
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June 17, 2011--------News Archive

Postnatal Depression Linked to Depression in Child
The effects of maternal depression on the likelihood of the child to develop depression may begin as early as infancy.

First Diagnostic Test for Hereditary Child's Disease
A breakthrough in genetic research has uncovered the defect behind a rare hereditary child’s disease that inhibits the body’s ability to break down vitamin D.

Walking, Sex, Spicy Food Favored to Bring On Labor
Near the end of pregnancy, some women take it upon themselves to try to induce labor, mostly by walking, having sex, eating spicy food or stimulating their nipples.


June 16, 2011--------News Archive

Effects of Premature Birth Can Reach Into Adulthood
Premature infants are less healthy, have more social and school struggles and face a greater risk of heart-health problems in adulthood.

Mouse Genetics Are A Resource For Human Genetics
Mouse gene knockouts will empower mammalian gene studies for a generation.


June 15, 2011--------News Archive

Taming the Molecule's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Two forms of a molecule are called enantiomers and can have radically different properties in biology. Thalidomide is a good example of how different forms of the same molecule can have disastrous consequences.

Fear Activates Young, Immature Infant Brain Cells
Fear burns memories into our brain, and new research by University of California, Berkeley, neuroscientists explains how.


June 14, 2011--------News Archive

Malnourishment - Pregnant or Lactating - Key to Diseases in Children
Study in primates establishes critical role that undernourishment in mothers-to-be and lactating females has in creating type 2 diabetes in offspring.

We Are All Mutants
The first whole-genome measure of human mutation predicts 60 new mutations exist within each of us at birth.

Canadian Women On Technology Used in Childbirth
This generation's choice of C-section does not reflect knowledge of the procedure's complications to mother and child.


June 13, 2011--------News Archive

Cell Division Linked to Oxygen Levels
Johns Hopkins reports that the MCM proteins, which promote cell division, also directly control the oxygen-sensing HIF-1 protein which controls cell division.

Many Genetic Keys Needed to Unlock Autism
Hundreds of small genetic variations are associated with autism spectrum disorders, including an area of DNA that may be key to understanding why humans are social animals.

Children Eschew the Fat - If Dad Says So
Dad's choice of where to eat could literally tip the scales on his children's health.

Mom's B Vitamins Lower Child's Colorectal Cancer
Mice born to mothers who are fed a diet supplemented with B vitamins are less likely to develop intestinal tumors

WHO Child Growth Charts

One in 10 women experience depression during pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. Fortunately, postnatal depression often resolves itself in the weeks following childbirth.

But for mothers with more profound or prolonged postnatal depression the risk of subsequent development of depression in their children is strong. A recent study by Lynne Murray and colleagues published

in the May 2011 issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) is the first to demonstrate that the effects of maternal depression on the likelihood of the child to develop depression may begin as early as infancy.

In the article titled "Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring Up to 16 Years of Age," Dr. Murray and her British colleagues report on 100 mothers (ranging from 18 to 42 years of age), 58 with postpartum depression, and the likelihood of their children to development depression over a 16 year period.

The authors identified first time mothers with depression at 2 months postpartum, along with a group of non-depressed women, and evaluated the mothers and their children at 18 months, and 5, 8, 13, and 16 years of age.

At 18 months, infant attachment was assessed, using a standardized observational measure of infant responses to maternal separation and reunion in an unfamiliar environment, known as Ainsworth's Strange Situation Procedure. At 5 and 8 years, trained researchers rated the children on emotional and behavioural responses to assess their ego resilience. At 16 years, diagnostic interviews were conducted by a clinical researcher.

Murray and colleagues discovered that children of postnatally depressed mothers were at substantially increased risk for depression. In fact, offspring's rate of depression by age 16 was more than 40%, with the average age of first onset of depression at age 14.

Researchers also found an associated impairment of the children's attachment to their mother during infancy. Lower child ego resilience, measured at years 5 and 8, increased risk of depression.

Marital conflict and further maternal depression, extending beyond the postnatal period, was also significantly associated with offspring lifetime depression.

In a related editorial in the same issue of the Journal, Dr. David Reiss observes, "The striking findings from Murray et al. emphasize the impact of maternal depression on the marital process and how important this process in the evolution of the child's depression."

The researchers conclude, "The substantially raised risk for depression among offspring of postnatally depressed mothers underlines the importance of screening for PND and of delivering early interventions."

The study was supported by grants from the Medical Research Council (G9324094) and the Tedworth Charitable Trust (TED76).

The study is published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and online at www.jaacap.com.

References

1. Murray L, Arteche A, Fearon P, Halligan S, Goodyer I, Cooper P. Maternal Postnatal Depression and the Development of Depression in Offspring Up to 16 Years of Age. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011;50(5):460– 470.

2. Reiss D. Parents and Children: Linked by Psychopathology but Not by Clinical Care. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011; 50(5):431-434.

Original article: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-06/e-pdl061611.php