Welcome to The Visible Embryo

Home- - -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- News Alerts -Contact


Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo in 1993 as a first generation internet teaching tool consolidating human embryology teaching for first year medical students.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human.

The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Archive
Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

Return To Top Of Page
Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Search artcles published since 2007

December 27, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts


Twins with Leukemia

Acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children
under the age of 14 years. With optimum treatment, approximately 75 %
of children are currently cured, but the treatment consists of
severe chemotherapy with many side effects.







WHO Child Growth Charts

       

New Insight to Mechanisms of T-ALL Leukemia

Acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children under the age of 14 years. With optimum treatment, approximately 75 % of children are currently cured, but the treatment consists of severe chemotherapy with many side effects

In collaboration with international research teams, scientists at VIB, KU Leuven and UZ Leuven have identified new genetic mutations that lead to T-ALL, a variant of ALL. They have unmasked the ribosome – the molecular machine in the cell that is involved in the production of proteins – as a weak spot in leukemia cells. Their research has also shown that there is a difference in T-ALL between adults and children. Both findings can be important in the search for improved treatments for T-ALL.

The research is published in December 23, 2012, Nature Genetics.

Jan Cools (VIB/KU Leuven):"We have discovered that there is a clear genetic difference between T-ALL in children and in adults. This could be an explanation why adults do not respond as well to the current therapy."

Stein Aerts (KU Leuven):"This is a beautiful example of the power of genome sequencing in cancer research. New technologies and large-scale bio-informatics allow us to study a lot of data simultaneously. This allows us to discover links that would have been impossible to find in the past."

T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia (T-ALL)

The formation of white blood cells is disrupted by leukemia. The cells in the bone marrow that should mature into white blood cells multiply unchecked without maturing completely. These immature blood cells compromise the production of normal blood cells. This makes patients more susceptible to infections.

Leukemia occurs in different forms; in the case of T-ALL, there is an accumulation of immature white blood cells over a very short period of time. With optimum treatment – involving chemotherapy – approximately 75 % of children are currently cured. For adults, the chance of a cure is below 50 %. Chemotherapy is associated with many side effects. The search for a more specific treatment can only start once we know what causes T-ALL.

7 new genes with a key role in T-ALL identified

T-ALL only occurs if errors in various genes occur simultaneously. It is important to determine which genes play a key role. Kim De Keersmaecker, Zeynep Kalender Atak, Jan Cools and Stein Aerts have identified a series of defects in 15 important genes, of which 7 have not previously been associated with T-ALL.

They used next-generation sequencing to analyze the 20,000+ genes of 67 T-ALL patients. This technique allows for very fast analysis and comparison of the complete DNA sequence of healthy and sick individuals.

A difference between adults and children

The investigators from Leuven also discovered a difference between T-ALL in children and in adults. T-ALL in adults contains significantly more mutations than in children. The leukemia cells in adults also contain mutations in other genes than in children. This genetic difference could be a possible explanation why adults do not respond as well to the current therapy.

A weak point in leukemia cells exposRPL5 and RPL10 – two newly identified genes – form A weak point in leukemia cells exposed

RPL5 and RPL10 – two newly identified genes – form part of the ribosome: this is the complex in the cell that produces proteins. The scientists hereby demonstrated for the first time that defects in the ribosome can also play a role in cancer activation. Experiments in yeast cells confirm that mutations in RPL10 cause a change in the ribosome.

Kim De Keersmaecker (VIB/KU Leuven):"This could be a weak point of the leukemia cells: all cells need properly functioning ribosomes to survive and to grow. These 'defective' ribosomes in the leukemia cells could be a new suitable target for the development of targeted therapies."

Patient information
As this study may raise many questions in patients, we would like to refer you to the e-mail address that the VIB has set up for this purpose. Anyone with questions about this research and other medical research can submit their questions on patients@vib.be. Please submit your question in Dutch or English only.

Original article: http://www.vib.be/en/news/Pages/Research-sheds-new-light-on-mechanisms-of-T-ALL,-a-form-of-leukemia-that-primarily-affects-children.aspx