Welcome to The Visible Embryo

Home-- -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- -Contact
 

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform


The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and
patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

Return To Top Of Page
Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
 

Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts | News Archive June 5, 2013

 
Angel
Angelina Jolie has undergone a double mastectomy to avoid her 90% potential
for breast cancer related to her own rare mutation of the BRCA gene.

BRCA1- BRCA2-related cancers often test negative for overexpression of the HER2/neu gene.
This genetic abnormality is not inherited, as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are,
but can develop in women over time.

When the HER2 gene is overexpressed, the cancer cells have too many HER2 receptors
(human epidermal growth factor receptor). HER2 receptors receive signals that stimulate the
growth of breast cancer cells. HER2-positive breast cancer is considered to be a more
aggressive form of the disease, but it can be treated with Herceptin (chemical name:
trastuzumab), a medication that targets HER2.

Most BRCA1- and BRCA2-related cancers cannot be treated with Herceptin
because they are HER2-negative.

Credit: BreastCancer.org






WHO Child Growth Charts

 

 

 

Abnormal HER2 gene found in many advanced cancers

The HER2 growth-factor gene is known to be over-active in breast and gastro-esophageal cancers. But now, irregularities in the genes 's expression — among them mutations, amplifications, substitutions, and translocations — have been found in 14 different advanced solid tumors.

The results of the study of more than 2,000 tumors, being presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology — ASCO, both surprised researchers and provided hope that some of these tumors might benefit from the three anti-HER2 therapies now in clinical use.

"No one ever thought that there would be such a variety of genomic alterations in HER2 in this many solid tumors," says Massimo Cristofanilli, MD, FACP, Professor of Medical Oncology and Director of the Jefferson Breast Center at the Kimmel Cancer Center and Thomas Jefferson University Hospital.

"But this may be good news, both clinically and scientifically," he says. "It tells us that these tumors might benefit from treatment that we already have on hand, and, from a research perspective, it builds on the idea that it is the genomic profile of a tumor that is relevant in providing biological information for planning of personalized treatments — not where the cancer is located or where it develops."

Dr. Cristofanilli is presenting the results of the study in an oral presentation at the ASCO meeting. He is one of a group of co-authors from many institutions who donated tumor samples to Foundation Medicine, a cancer diagnostics company in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Foundation Medicine led and paid for the study.


Dr. Cristofanilli contributed about 50 metastatic breast tumor samples for the analysis, and found out that one of his patients with advanced triple negative breast cancer had a HER2 mutation.

"My patient was treated with Herceptin as well as chemotherapy, and derived clinical benefit," he says. "No one looks for HER2 mutations in this form of breast cancer. To me, this makes the case for the value of genome-driven therapy."


In the study, Foundation Medicine conducted a genetic screen of more than 182 genes and 14 genetic rearrangements known to be linked to cancer in 2,223 tumor specimens. Twenty different advanced solid cancers were represented.

Researchers found HER2 alterations in 14 types of solid tumors, including 29 percent of esophageal, 20 percent of uterine, 14 percent of breast, 12 percent of stomach carcinomas, and 6 percent of all lung cancer samples.

They also found HER2 irregularities varied widely — 4.9 percent of specimens had 116 different HER2 alterations. That included 58 percent with amplifications, 25 percent with substitutions, 14 percent with indels (insertions/deletions of DNA), 2 percent with splice site variants, 2 percent with translocations, 5 percent with multiple alterations, and 2 tumors had both HER2 substitution and amplification.

Anti-HER2 therapies such as Herceptin can also treat HER2 mutations, and may also help block HER2 that is altered in the ways seen in the study, Dr. Cristofanilli says.

"This study highlights the need to study a broad range of genes at a high level of sensitivity and specificity when searching for novel targets of therapy," he says. "Widespread use of this approach could provide more treatment options and enable more rapid accrual to ongoing and planned trials of agents targeting pathways under study."

Dr. Cristofanilli declares no conflicts of interest related to this study.

Thomas Jefferson University (TJU), the largest freestanding academic medical center in Philadelphia, is nationally renowned for medical and health sciences education and innovative research. Founded in 1824, TJU includes Jefferson Medical College (JMC), one of the largest private medical schools in the country and ranked among the nation's best medical schools by U.S. News & World Report, and the Jefferson Schools of Nursing, Pharmacy, Health Professions, Population Health and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences. Jefferson University Physicians is TJU's multi-specialty physician practice consisting of the full-time faculty of JMC. Thomas Jefferson University partners with its clinical affiliate, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals.

Original article: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-06/tju-aih053113.php