Welcome to The Visible Embryo

Home-- -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- -Contact
 

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform


The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and
patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

Return To Top Of Page
Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
 

Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts | News Archive June 24, 2013

 

Towns and cities are the habitat of many species. The European blackbird
(Turdus merula) is one of the most successful bird species to have colonised urban areas.

© Christian Ziegler






WHO Child Growth Charts

 

 

 

Fast beat of the city resets biological rhythms

Urban environments have a profound effect on the internal clocks of city residents both human and animal. These changes to biological rhythms could lead to increased incidence of health problems and reduced lifespan.

Could biological clocks be modified to better function in urban environments – this is a question binge answered by studying wild animals.

Biologists from the University of Glasgow and the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Germany have now discovered for the first time that the biological rhythms of city-dwelling organisms are changing in response to city living. The work is published online in the Proceedings of the Royal Society.

The researchers measured the circadian rhythms of groups of urban and rural blackbirds in southern Germany and found that the city-dwellers had faster and less robust internal clocks than rural blackbirds. In the wild, city birds woke up earlier and rested less than forest birds.

The researchers captured adult male European blackbirds from the city of Munich and a nearby rural forest. Each bird was equipped with a lightweight radio-transmitter which monitored their daily levels of activity in the wild for 10 days before they were recaptured. They were then kept in light-proofed, sound-insulated chambers and their circadian rhythms were measured under constant conditions, without any environmental information that could serve as a “clock”. In this way, each bird’s own, internal rhythm could be tested. Once the tests were complete the birds were returned to the wild.

Barbara Helm, of the University of Glasgow’s Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, said: “The daily cycles of activity and rest are based on biological rhythms which have evolved as an adaptation to the rising and setting of the sun.

Our tests were designed to benchmark the internal rhythms of the birds under controlled conditions and to determine a link to the birds’ chronotype in the wild. Chronotype is a measurement of an individual’s consistent timing relative to environmental factors, its relative “morningness” or “eveningness.”

We found that the rhythms of urban birds in the wild differ significantly from their forest counterparts. On average, they began their daily activities around 30 minutes before dawn, while forest birds began their day as the sun rose. The city birds ended their days around nine minutes later, meaning they were active for about 40 minutes longer each day.


"In constant laboratory conditions, urban birds’ circadian rhythms were clearly altered, running faster by 50 minutes than forest birds and being clearly less robust. There seems to be a different beat to city life. City clocks were also less persistent, especially in the business district.”

Barbara Helm, University of Glasgow’s Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine


Previous research undertaken by other researchers has suggested strong links in humans between disrupted sleep patterns and an increased incidence of depression and diseases including obesity and some types of cancers. The work shows for the first time that that when sharing human habitats, a wild animal species has a different internal clock.

“We’d be keen to find out the costs and benefits of modifying biological rhythms in blackbirds and other animals commonly found in our cities. This may help us to better understand the challenges of coping with urban life.”


The researchers believe the differences in the biological rhythms could be the result of micro-evolutionary changes in response to urban stimuli such as artificial light and increased levels of noise.


Davide Dominoni, of the Max Planck Institute and an affiliate of the University of Glasgow, added: “For songbirds, early risers may have an advantage in finding a mate and thus a greater chance of successfully producing offspring and passing along their chronotype to the next generation.” Other research has shown that chronotypes are highly heritable, so the process of natural selection could mean that city birds are evolving to favour early risers. “The speed of urbanization is accelerating around the world, but we don’t have anything close to a complete understanding of the effects of urban living on humans and animals.”

Original press release: http://www.mpg.de/6904709/blackbirds-artificial-light