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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform


The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and
patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
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Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts | News Archive Aug 2, 2013

 

Polyribosomes (or polysomes) are a cluster of ribosomes, bound to an mRNA molecule.
Many ribosomes read one mRNA simultaneously, to create a protein. They appear mainly in a circular format as they follow the structure of  mRNA which can be twisted into a circle.

The methylguanosine cap on the end of messenger RNA ensures its' stability while creating a protein.





WHO Child Growth Charts

 

 

 

Understanding the effects of genes on humans

Montreal scientists have developed a new approach for scanning the entire genome that will help explain the effect of genes on human traits.

Recent technologies developed in genomics (the study of genes) have revealed a large number of genetic influences on common diseases, such as diabetes, asthma, cancer or schizophrenia. However, discovering genetic variations that predispose us to disease is only a first step. In order to apply this knowledge towards prevention or cure, including tailoring treatment to a specific genetic profile – known as personalized medicine – we need to know how each genetic variation works.

In a study published today in Nature Communications, Dr. Constantin Polychronakos from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC, and collaborators from McGill University and The University of Texas), proposes a new approach for scanning the entire genome to better help us understand the effect of genes.


DNA is the blueprint according to which our body is constructed. Cells "read" this blueprint by transcribing the information into RNA, which is then used as a template to construct proteins – the body's building blocks.

Genes are typically scanned based on their RNA association with ribosomes – particles in which protein synthesis takes place.

The new technique focuses on proteins and mRNAs by testing the ratio of polysomal or non-polysomal messenger RNA levels associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the same messenger RNA.


Dr. Polychronakos: "Until now, researchers have been focusing on the effects of disease-associated genomic variants on DNA-to-RNA transcription, instead of the challenging question of effects on RNA-to-protein translation.

Thanks to this methodology, we can now better understand the effect of genetic variants on translation of RNA to protein – a powerful way of developing biomarkers for personalized medicine and new therapies."

Abstract
The search for expression quantitative trait loci has traditionally centred entirely on the process of transcription, whereas variants with effects on messenger RNA translation have not been systematically studied. Here we present a high-throughput approach for measuring translational cis-regulation in the human genome. Using ribosomal association as proxy for translational efficiency of polymorphic messenger RNAs, we test the ratio of polysomal/non-polysomal messenger RNA level as a quantitative trait for association with single nucleotide polymorphisms on the same messenger RNA transcript. We identify one important ribosomal distribution effect, from rs1131017 in the 5′-untranslated region of RPS26, that is in high linkage disequilibrium with the 12q13 locus for susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. The effect on translation is confirmed at the protein level by quantitative western blots, both ex vivo and after in vitro translation. Our results are a proof-of-principle that allelic effects on translation can be detected at a transcriptome-wide scale.

About this study:
Supported by the McGill University and Genome Québec Innovation Centre, the research team applied this method to a diabetes gene and discovered that at least one of the 50 genetic loci that confer risk to type-1 diabetes shows an effect on the human body by altering RNA translation to protein.

This paper is one of six that were chosen, from approximately 4000, for presentation at the plenary session of the 2012 conference of the American Society of Human Genetics.

This work was funded by Genome Canada, Génome Québec (GRiD project) and the DP3 program of the USA National Institutes of Health (NIDDK).

The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI-MUHC) is a world-renowned biomedical and health-care hospital research centre. Located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, the Institute is the research arm of the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University. The Institute supports over 600 researchers, over 1,100 graduate students and post-docs and fellows devoted to a broad spectrum of fundamental and clinical research. Over 1,800 clinical research studies are conducted within our hospitals each year. The Research Institute of the MUHC is supported in part by the Fonds de recherche du Québec - Santé (FRQS). For more information, visit http://www.muhc.ca/research/

About McGill University
Founded in Montreal, Quebec, in 1821, McGill is a leading Canadian post-secondary institution. It has two campuses, 11 faculties, 11 professional schools, 300 programs of study and some 39,000 students, including more than 9,300 graduate students. McGill attracts students from over 150 countries around the world, its 8,200 international students making up 21 per cent of the student body. Almost half of McGill students claim a first language other than English, including approximately 40 per cent whose first language is French or who speak it fluently. http://www.mcgill.ca

About Génome Québec
Since May 2000, Génome Québec has been the driving force behind the development of genomics in Québec. By supporting nearly 80 projects and 800 researchers and managing the operations of the McGill University and Génome Québec Innovation Centre, Génome Québec is helping to accelerate the discovery of new applications for genomics in strategic areas, such as human health, forestry and the environment. The funds invested by Génome Québec are provided by the Ministry of Higher Education, Research, Science and Technology, the Government of Canada, through Genome Canada, and private partners. For more information, visit http://www.genomequebec.com

Original press release: