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Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
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Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts |News Archive Aug 13, 2013

 

An electron micrograph of a breast cancer cell






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Predicting Individual Breast Cancer Risk May Be Possible

An international collaboration led by the Harvard Stem Cell Institute has discovered why women who give birth in their early twenties are less likely to eventually develop breast cancer than women who don't, triggering a search for a way to confer this protective state on all women.

The researchers now are in the process of testing p27, a mammary gland progenitor marker, in the tissue of thousands of women collected over a 20-year period—women whose histories have been followed extremely closely—to see if it is an accurate breast cancer predictor in a large population of women. If the hypothesis is confirmed, likely within a few months, Polyak says the commercial development of a clinical test for breast cancer risk would follow.

In a paper just published in the journal Cell Stem Cell, the researchers describe how a full-term pregnancy in a woman’s early twenties reduces the relative number and proliferative capacity of mammary gland progenitors—cells that have the ability to divide into milk-producing cells—making them less likely to acquire mutations that lead to cancer.


By comparing numerous breast tissue samples, scientists found that women at high risk for breast cancer, such as those who inherit a mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene, have higher-than-average numbers of mammary gland progenitors.

In general, women who carried a child to full term had the lowest populations of mammary gland progenitors, even when compared to cancer-free women who had never been pregnant.

In addition, in woman who gave birth relatively early, but later still developed breast cancer, the number of mammary gland progenitors were again observed to be higher than average.


“The reason we are excited about this research is that we can use a progenitor cell census to determine who’s at particularly high risk for breast cancer,” said Kornella Polyak, a Harvard Stem Cell Institute Principal Faculty member and Harvard Medical School professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. “We could use this strategy to decrease cancer risk because we know what regulates the proliferation of these cells and we could deplete them from the breast.”


Research shows that two trends are contributing to an increase in the number of breast cancer diagnoses—a rise in obesity and the ever-increasing number of women postponing child bearing. The scientists’ long-range goal is to develop a protective treatment that would mimic the protective effects of early child bearing.


The research, which took five years to complete, began with conversations between Polyak and John Hopkins University School of Medicine Professor Saraswati Sukumar, PhD. The two scientists formed collaborations with clinicians at cancer centers that see large numbers of high-risk women in order to obtain breast tissue samples. They also worked with genomics experts and bioinformaticians to analyze gene expression in different breast cell types. At times, Polyak and Sukumar had trouble convincing others to help with the study, which is unique in the breast cancer field for its focus on risk prediction and prevention.


“In general people who study cancer always want to focus on treating the cancer but in reality, preventing cancer can have the biggest impact on cancer-associated morbidity and mortality. I think the mentality has to change because breast cancer affects so many women, and even though many of them are not dying of breast cancer, there’s a significant personal and societal burden.”

Kornella Polyak, Harvard Stem Cell Institute Principal Faculty member, Harvard Medical School professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute


Abstract Highlights
Parity-related molecular alterations in control but not BRCA1/BRCA2 normal breast
Stem cell-related pathways are decreased in cells from parous women
Number of p27+ cells with progenitor features relates to breast cancer risk
p27 and TGF-β signaling are key regulators of mammary epithelial progenitors

Summary
Early full-term pregnancy is one of the most effective natural protections against breast cancer. To investigate this effect, we have characterized the global gene expression and epigenetic profiles of multiple cell types from normal breast tissue of nulliparous and parous women and carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We found significant differences in CD44+ progenitor cells, where the levels of many stem cell-related genes and pathways, including the cell-cycle regulator p27, are lower in parous women without BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. We also noted a significant reduction in the frequency of CD44+p27+ cells in parous women and showed, using explant cultures, that parity-related signaling pathways play a role in regulating the number of p27+ cells and their proliferation. Our results suggest that pathways controlling p27+ mammary epithelial cells and the numbers of these cells relate to breast cancer risk and can be explored for cancer risk assessment and prevention.

Members of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Beth-Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Coimbra University Hospital, Thomson Reuters Healthcare & Science, NICTA Victoria Research Laboratory, University of Melbourne, University of Oslo, Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes Institute, Baylor-Charles A. Sammons Cancer Center, St. Vincent’s Institute, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre contributed to this research.

The main supporter of this research was the Avon Foundation, with additional contributions by the National Cancer Institute, the Susan G. Komen Foundation, the Terri Brodeur Foundation, the US Army Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program, the Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium, the St. Vincent’s Hospital Melbourne Research Endowment Fund, the Victorian Government’s OIS Program, the Programme for Advanced Medical Education, and the Cellex Foundation.

Original press release: http://www.hsci.harvard.edu/newsroom/predicting-individual-breast-cancer-risk-may-be-possible