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Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
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Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts |News Archive Oct 29, 2013

 

Pet dogs represent an excellent model of many ailments in people, and the presence of fetal microchimerism in dogs will allow studies that clarify its role in human health and disease.







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Sibling cells can be passed from mother to pups in dogs

Some people possess a small number of cells in their bodies that are not genetically their own; this condition is known as microchimerism. In prior studies, researchers from the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine found this condition also exists in dogs.

Researcher Jeffrey Bryan, an associate professor of oncology at the MU College of Veterinary Medicine and director of Comparative Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory, believes the discovery will help further research into the health effects of microchimerism in dogs and in humans.

“We already have some evidence that microchimerism may increase risk of thyroid disease while lowering the risk of breast cancer in women,” Bryan said. “The pet dog represents an excellent model of many ailments in people, and the presence of fetal microchimerism in dogs will allow studies which further clarify its role in health and disease. Knowing that the condition can be passed on through birth will help us track the condition and its effects through several generations of animals.”


Microchimerism most often occurs when a mother gives birth to a child. In some cases, cells from that child are left in the mothers’ body and continue to live, despite being of a different genetic makeup than surrounding cells.

MU researchers have identified evidence that these cells can be passed on to other children the mother may give birth to at a later time.


In their study, Senthil Kumar assistant research professor and assistant director of the Comparative Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory, and co-investigator and and Bryan, along with MU researchers Sandra Axiak-Bechtel, assistant professor of oncology, and Sara Hansen, a comparative medicine resident at MU, found microchimerism in a female dog and her puppies.

Researchers found cells with Y-chromosomes in the mother after these births, meaning the mother had male cells present in her female body. The researchers also found genetically similar male cells in the mother’s female puppies from a later litter. Those puppies were newborn and had never been pregnant, strongly suggesting that they acquired the cells that were left behind by their older brothers while in the womb.


“These new findings are significant because they suggest that the movement, or trafficking, of fetal cells is quite extensive in dogs, as has been suggested in people. This degree of cell trafficking can have an impact on health, disease, and therapy, including in transplantation. The identification of this phenomenon strongly suggests that companion dogs will help us more rapidly understand the real impact of microchimerism in human medicine.”

Jeffrey Bryan, associate professor of oncology, MU College of Veterinary Medicine, director of Comparative Oncology and Epigenetics Laboratory


Kumar, Hansen, Axiak-Bechtel, and Bryan plan on continuing their research to follow the lifespans of dogs with microchimerism to determine to what diseases those dogs may be susceptible.

This study was published in the journal, Chimerism.

Original press release:ws-releases/2013/1023-older-siblings%E2%80%99-cells-can-be-passed-from-female-dogs-to-their-puppies-in-the-womb-mu-researchers-find/