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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
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August 5, 2011--------News Archive

Prenatal Stress Linked with Accelerated Cell Aging
Research points to critical role of maternal health and well-being during pregnancy.

Mutation Linked With the Absence of Fingerprints
Rare genetic mutations prove useful as a tool for investigating unknown aspects of our biology.


August 4, 2011--------News Archive

Pregnancy Diet Decreases Baby's Breast Cancer Risk
Era of Hope conference to feature compelling research examining benefits to daughters based on mother's diet in pregnancy.

Quick, Low-Cost Tests For Child Development Delays
Study confirms accuracy of developmental screening tests that can be administered by family physicians.


August 3, 2011--------News Archive

Helping Children Learn to Understand Numbers
It's all in the way we speak to them.

Pilot Study Suggests New Approach for Preeclampsia
Apheresis-based treatment may prolong pregnancy.

The Dark Side of Oxytocin
The "cuddle chemical" can also stir emotions like envy and gloating.


August 2, 2011--------News Archive

New Light on the Mechanisms of Brain Development
Published study has implications for understanding brain disorders rooted in development, such as autism.

Why Autistic Individuals Confuse Pronouns
Impaired communication between areas of the brain causes autism and disrupts concept of 'self'.


August 1, 2011--------News Archive

Fast Ripples Mark Brain Seizure Activity in Children
Resection surgery of brain regions with fast ripples may improve seizure outcome.

Caloric Restriction and Female Infertility
Scientists tested the effects of caloric restriction on eggs produced by aging mice, and found they were better quality than age-matched mice fed a normal diet.

70 Percent of 8-Month-Old Babies Eat Too Much Salt
Due to being fed salty and processed foods like yeast extract, gravy, baked beans and tinned spaghetti, United Kingdom infants have too much salt in their bodies.

WHO Child Growth Charts


Medical evidence suggests that fast ripples are a specific marker for the seizure zone zone in the epileptic brain.

New research focusing on high-frequency oscillations, termed ripples and fast ripples, recorded by intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), may provide an important marker for the localization of the brain region responsible for seizure activity.

According to the study now available in Epilepsia, a journal of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), the resection - removal, of brain regions containing fast ripples, along with the visually-identified seizure-onset zone, may achieve a good seizure outcome in pediatric epilepsy.

High-frequency oscillations at 80-200 Hz are known as ripples and those above 200 Hz are considered fast ripples.

Medical evidence suggests that fast ripples are a specific surrogate marker of the seizure generation zone. Studies in adults have suggested that resection of the brain region containing fast ripples was associated with good seizure outcome. However, these studies used a small number of electrode (EEG) contacts, with limited brain coverage, which may not be optimal for pediatric patients who often exhibit a more generalized epileptic network than adults.

Hiroshi Otsubo, MD, with The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada and lead researcher of the current study explains, "In pediatric patients, extensive surgical resection are often used, but may overestimate the link between high-frequency oscillations and seizure outcome. Good surgical success may also be achieved by more limited surgeries that include both the brain region with high-frequency oscillations and the brain region that appears to initiate seizures, even when they are independent."

To further explore this hypothesis, the research team evaluated the relationship of resection of brain regions containing high-frequency oscillations and the area of seizure onset in pediatric epilepsy patients.

Researchers retrospectively analyzed 28 pediatric patients with epilepsy who underwent intracranial EEG monitoring prior to focal resection surgery. Brain regions containing a high occurrence of high-frequency oscillations were determined, and spatial relationships between regions with fast ripples and seizure-onset zones were investigated.

The team compared seizure outcome with the size of these regions, the surgical resection, and amount of the regions with fast ripples and areas of seizure onset within the resection area.

Results show that 2 years after surgery, 10 patients were completely seizure free and 18 continued to have some seizure activity.

Complete resection of the brain regions exhibiting fast ripples was significantly associated with better seizure outcome. Improved seizure outcome was also observed with complete resection of brain regions with ripples; surprisingly, however, resection of the area of seizure onset did not correlate with seizure outcome. The size of surgical resection was not linked to seizure outcome.

Furthermore, the authors, Drs. Akiyama and Otsubo et al., noted that the visually- determined seizure onset zone partially overlapped with regions containing high-rate fast ripples.

"The entire epileptic network, containing fast ripples, ripples and seizure onset zones, must be thoroughly analyzed to ensure complete resection of the area causing seizures with the smallest resection possible," advised Drs. Akiyama and Otsubo et al.

"While our results are preliminary and further validation is necessary, the analysis of high frequency oscillations offers clinicians a new surgical approach that could potentially improve seizure outcome in children with epilepsy."

Full citation:"Focal Resection of Fast Ripples on Extraoperative Intracranial EEG Improves Seizure Outcome in Pediatric Epilepsy." Tomoyuki Akiyama, Bla´thnaid McCoy, Cristina Y. Go, Ayako Ochi, Irene M. Elliott, Mari Akiyama, Elizabeth J. Donner, Shelly K. Weiss, O. Carter Snead III, James T. Rutka, James M. Drake, and Hiroshi Otsubo. Epilepsia; Published Online: July 29, 2011 (DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03199.x). http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03199.x.

Epilepsia is the leading, most authoritative source for current clinical and research results on all aspects of epilepsy. As the journal of the International League Against Epilepsy, subscribers every month will review scientific evidence and clinical methodology in: clinical neurology, neurophysiology, molecular biology, neuroimaging, neurochemistry, neurosurgery, pharmacology, neuroepidemiology, and therapeutic trials. For more information, please visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1528-1167.

Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons, with strengths in every major academic and professional field and partnerships with many of the world's leading societies. Wiley-Blackwell publishes nearly 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols. For more information, please visit www.wileyblackwell.com or our new online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), one of the world's most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities.