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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!




Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

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Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
August 5, 2011--------News Archive

Prenatal Stress Linked with Accelerated Cell Aging
Research points to critical role of maternal health and well-being during pregnancy.

Mutation Linked With the Absence of Fingerprints
Rare genetic mutations prove useful as a tool for investigating unknown aspects of our biology.

August 4, 2011--------News Archive

Pregnancy Diet Decreases Baby's Breast Cancer Risk
Era of Hope conference to feature compelling research examining benefits to daughters based on mother's diet in pregnancy.

Quick, Low-Cost Tests For Child Development Delays
Study confirms accuracy of developmental screening tests that can be administered by family physicians.

August 3, 2011--------News Archive

Helping Children Learn to Understand Numbers
It's all in the way we speak to them.

Pilot Study Suggests New Approach for Preeclampsia
Apheresis-based treatment may prolong pregnancy.

The Dark Side of Oxytocin
The "cuddle chemical" can also stir emotions like envy and gloating.

August 2, 2011--------News Archive

New Light on the Mechanisms of Brain Development
Study has implications for understanding brain disorders rooted in development, such as autism.

Why Autistic Individuals Confuse Pronouns
Impaired communication between areas of the brain causes autism and disrupts concept of 'self'.

August 1, 2011--------News Archive

Fast Ripples Mark Brain Seizure Activity in Children
Resection surgery of brain regions with fast ripples may improve seizure outcome.

Caloric Restriction and Female Infertility
Scientists tested the effects of caloric restriction on eggs produced by aging mice, and found they were better quality than age-matched mice fed a normal diet.

70 Percent of 8-Month-Old Babies Eat Too Much Salt
Due to being fed salty and processed foods like yeast extract, gravy, baked beans and tinned spaghetti, United Kingdom infants have too much salt in their bodies.

WHO Child Growth Charts

Look! Three bears. OR Look at the bears, there are three!

The development of number sense in early childhood is the best predictor education specialists have of later mathematic ability. The findings from this study may provide a formal basis for the development of models and interventions to help address developmental disorders, such as dyscalculia.

Numerals were invented around four to five thousand years ago, meaning it is unlikely that enough time has elapsed for specialization of areas in the brain for processing only numbers. This suggests that math is largely a cultural invention.

Math appears to be based on an interface between vision and reasoning that we share with other animals, allowing us to "see" small numbers—up to around five—without counting. This ability—often called 'the number sense'—lays the foundations of later mathematical knowledge. But, its basis is poorly understood. It has been argued that the number sense itself may be innate. But this fails to account for why learning to master the use of small numbers is such a difficult and drawn-out process in children.

Now, a formal model of the cognitive basis of counting has been reported in research published in the open-access, peer-reviewed journal PLoS ONE.

Beginning with a model of the way our brains learn, the authors show how our ability to see numbers can emerge naturally, but get confused by how our language orders the size of sets of numbers, and the objects they describe.

While the difficulty of distinguishing numbers increases with an increase in set size, the authors show how we talk—and think—about numbers far better as their size decreases. They propose that there is a capacity limit on our number sense from these observations. Their findings explain why children struggle to map numbers to words, and crucially, it shows how this process can be improved.

Numbers are never encountered alone in sets. We may see "three bears, but never a set of just "three." So children must learn to distinguish which part of "three bears" is "three."

Since learning is based on expectation—our brains learn by guessing which things lead to what. Children are far better at learning to distinguish "three" if "bears" are mentioned first: "look at the bears, there are three!"

Indeed, training children saying "look, there are three bears" had no effect on their number sense at all. But children trained with "look at the bears, there are three!" showed a 30% improvement on their ability to distinguish small sets after just one short training session.These experimental findings provide the first evidence that "number sense" can be improved by properly targeted training.

The computational model provided by the study is a formal account of why the training works, and is the first formal model of how number sense is learned, and how numerical capacity limits arise.

The research team used the Rescorla-Wagner model to simulate learning and predict the effects of training in children. This is a widely supported model of learning in the behavioral sciences, both in terms of its fit to human and animal behavior, and the amount of neuroscience supporting its basic mechanisms.

From an upcoming article in PLoS ONE. The research was led by Michael Ramscar, Melody Dye, Hanna Poppick and Fiona O'Donnell McCarthy from Stanford University, and was funded by the National Science Foundation.

Original article: http://www.childup.com/blog/childup-bestof-helping-children-learn-to-understand-numbers-its-all-in-the-way-we-speak-to-them