Welcome to The Visible Embryo

 

 

Home-- -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- -Contact
 

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform


The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and
patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

 

Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
 

Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts |News Archive Jan 21, 2014

 

Beginning in February, 2009, a New York federal judge upheld the banning of toys
containing all but trace amounts of six types of the chemical phthalates.
In a massive consumer product law passed August, 2009, lawmakers sponsored legislation,
to make sure that toys containing phthalates would be off store shelves.
The same law also drastically reduced the amount of lead allowed in toys.

.






WHO Child Growth Charts

 

 

 

Widespread exposure to phthalate endocrines

North Americans are being exposed to significantly lower levels of some phthalates that were banned from children's articles in 2008, but exposures to other forms of these chemicals are rising steeply, according to a study led by researchers at University of California San Francisco.

Phthalates, which are used to soften plastic, can be found in nail polish, fragrances, plastics and building materials, as well as the food supply. An accumulating body of scientific evidence suggests they can disrupt the endocrine system, which secretes hormones, and may have serious long-term health consequences.


Phthalate exposures to adult men have been linked to DNA damage in sperm and lower sperm quality, while exposures to pregnant women have been linked to alterations in the genital development of their male children, as well as cognitive and behavioral problems in boys and girls.


Published in Environmental Health Perspectives, the paper is the first to examine how phthalate exposures have changed over time in a large, representative sample of the U.S. population. It delineates trends in a decade's worth of data—from 2001 to 2010—in exposure to eight phthalates among 11,000 people who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


"We were excited to see that exposure to some of the phthalates that are of public health concern actually went down. Unfortunately, our data also suggest that these are being replaced by other phthalates with potentially adverse health effects."

Ami Zota, ScD, MS, assistant professor of environmental and occupational health, George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services. Dr. Zota did her research as a postdoctoral fellow in the University of California San Francisco, Program on Reproductive Health and Environment.


Like previous studies, this one found that nearly all of the study participants had been exposed to at least some of the phthalates that were measured, including those that have been partially banned.

Six of the phthalates have been banned from use in children's articles, such as toys. Three were permanently banned, and three were subject to an interim ban, pending further study, from use in toys that can be placed in a child's mouth. The law took effect in January of 2009.

Exposures to the phthalates subject to the permanent ban—BBzP, DnBP and DEHP—all went down. DEHP exposures were consistently higher in children than adults, but the gap between the age groups narrowed over time. Data were not available for children younger than 6 years old.


Paradoxically, exposures went up in the phthalates that Congress banned pending further study—DnOP, DiDP and DiNP.

They increased by 15 and 25 percent in the first two, but went up nearly 150 percent in DiNP, which industry is using to replace other phthalates like DEHP. DiNP was recently added to the list of chemicals known by the state of California to cause cancer under California's Proposition 65.


The federal ban is not the only force at work in determining phthalate exposures. Both consumers and industry have changed their behavior in response to advocacy by groups like the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics. Since 2004, more than 1,000 companies have agreed to remove certain chemicals from personal care products and report more clearly what chemicals they are using.

Possibly as a consequence of these changes, the study found dramatic changes in exposures to the other two phthalates they measured (DEP and DiBP), neither of which has been subject to federal restrictions. Exposure to DEP fell 42 percent since 2001 and tripled for DiBP.

DEP was widely used in the consumer care products that were the main focus of the early activism. The researchers said industry may be using DiBP as a replacement, both in personal care products and in solvents, adhesives and medication.


But it is hard to know for sure how changes in industry preference and consumer behavior are affecting human exposures, given how little is known about the chemical composition of consumer products.

"Our study shows the power of monitoring exposure to chemicals — we can identify where we have made progress and where more information is needed. It also indicates that actions by government and consumer groups can make a difference in exposures in all Americans."

Tracey Woodruff, PhD, MPH, directs the Program on Reproductive Health and the Environment at UCSF


Abstract
Background: Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Because of potential adverse effects on human health, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP; metabolite = monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP; metabolite = mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP)), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) are being replaced by substitutes including other phthalates, however little is known about consequent trends in population-level exposures.

Objective: To examine temporal trends in urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the US general population, and whether trends vary by socio-demographic characteristics.

Methods: We combined data on 11 phthalate metabolites for 11071 participants from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2010). Percent changes and least square geometric means (LSGMs) were calculated from multivariate regression models.

Results: LSGM concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, MnBP, MBzP, and ∑DEHP metabolites decreased between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 (percent change (95% CI): -42% (-49, -34); -17% (-23, -9); -32% (-39, -23) and -37% (-46, -26), respectively). In contrast, LSGM concentrations of monoisobutyl phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), monocarboxyoctyl phthalate, and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) increased over the study period (percent change (95% CI): 206% (178, 236); 25% (8, 45); 149% (102, 207); and 15% (1, 30), respectively). Trends varied by subpopulations for certain phthalates. For example, LSGM concentrations of ∑DEHP metabolites, MCPP, and MCNP were higher in children than adults but the gap between groups narrowed over time (pinteraction < 0.01).

Conclusions: US population exposure to phthalates has changed in the last decade. Data gaps make it difficult to explain trends but legislative activity and advocacy campaigns by non-governmental organizations may play a role.

Analysis for the study was conducted by CDC's Division of Laboratory Sciences in the National Center for Environmental Health.

The research was funded by the Pew Charitable Trusts, the Passport Science Innovation Fund and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

UCSF is a leading university dedicated to promoting health worldwide through advanced biomedical research, graduate-level education in the life sciences and health professions, and excellence in patient care. It includes top-ranked graduate schools of dentistry, medicine, nursing and pharmacy, a graduate division with nationally renowned programs in basic biomedical, translational and population sciences, as well as a preeminent biomedical research enterprise and two top-ranked hospitals, UCSF Medical Center and UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital.