Welcome to The Visible Embryo

 

 

Home-- -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- -Contact
 

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform


The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and
patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

 

Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
 

Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts |News Archive Jan 22, 2014

 

In women with lupus and/or antiphospholipid syndrome, antibodies recognize and attack
the body’s own proteins, putting women at high risk for recurrent pregnancy loss
and late gestational complications, such as preeclampsia.






WHO Child Growth Charts

 

 

 

Malaria drug helps prevent complications in pregnant lupus patients

An anti-malaria drug combination might be useful in helping to prevent pregnancy complications in women with lupus and the related disorder antiphospholipid syndrome.


Circulating antibodies, called antiphospholipid antibodies, are normally produced by the body to recognize and attack bacteria and other microbes.

In those women with lupus and/or antiphospholipid syndrome, however, these antibodies recognize and attack the body’s own proteins, putting women at high risk for recurrent pregnancy loss and late gestational complications, such as preeclampsia.


Yale School of Medicine researchers have published their new study in the American Journal of Reproductive Immunology.

Patients with lupus or antiphospholipid syndrome are often treated with the anti-malarial drug hydroxychloroquine. While the drug can be safely continued during pregnancy, it was unknown whether it might be beneficial in preventing pregnancy complications in women with lupus and/or antiphospholipid syndrome.

In the study, senior author Vikki M. Abrahams, associate professor in the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences at Yale, along with first author and Yale medical student Caroline Albert, measured possible detrimental effects of antiphospholipid antibodies on human placental trophoblast cell function.


“We found that hydroxychloroquine partially reversed some, but not all, of the detrimental effects of antiphospholipid antibodies on human placental cell function.

"So perhaps some form of combination therapy that includes hydroxychloroquine may be beneficial to pregnant patients with lupus and/or antiphospholipid syndrome.”


Vikki M. Abrahams, associate professor, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, Yale University


Problem
Women with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) are at risk for pregnancy complications. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) alter trophoblast function by triggering an inflammatory cytokine response; modulating angiogenic factor secretion; and inhibiting migration. While patients with APS are often treated with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), its effect on trophoblast function is poorly understood.

Method of study
A human first trimester trophoblast cell line was treated with or without antihuman β2GPI mAbs in the presence or absence of HCQ. Supernatants were analyzed by ELISA. Cell migration was measured using a colormetric assay.

Results
Antiphospholipid antibodies-induced trophoblast IL-8, IL-1 β, PlGF, and sEndoglin secretion were not altered by HCQ. aPL-induced inhibition of trophoblast migration was partially reversed by HCQ, even though HCQ significantly increased secretion of pro-migratory IL-6 to greater than baseline. aPL-induced upregulation of TIMP2 appears to inhibit trophoblast migration; the inability of HCQ to prevent aPL-induced TIMP2 may explain why migration was only partially restored.

Conclusion
Hydroxychloroquine reversed the aPL-inhibition of trophoblast IL-6 secretion and partially limited aPL-inhibition of cell migration. Thus, some form of combination therapy that includes HCQ may be beneficial to pregnant APS patients.

Other authors on the study include William J. Schlesinger, Chez A. Viall, Melissa J. Mulla, Jan J. Brosens, and Lawrence W. Chamley.

The study was funded by grants from the Lupus Foundation of America and the March of Dimes. Caroline Albert was supported by the 2012 Lupus Foundation of America Gina M. Finzi Memorial Student Summer Fellowship.

Return to top of page