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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
August 12, 2011--------News Archive

Common Drugs Reduce Postpartum Breast Cancer
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, have been found to reduce the severity of postpartum breast cancers in animal models.

“Good Fat” Most Prevalent in Thin Children
Study at Joslin Diabetes Center and Children's Hospital Boston finds boosting brown fat levels may combat obesity epidemic.


August 11, 2011--------News Archive

Flame Retardant in California Pregnant Women
California’s strict flammability regulations may have led to levels two times higher for California residents than for people in the rest of the country.

Paper Money Worldwide Contains Bisphenol A
Research results also found that the most likely source of the BPA in the currency is the thermal paper used in cash register receipts.


August 10, 2011--------News Archive

Clues to How Hearts, Intestines and Key Organs Form
A newly-identified protein may hold the key to keeping appetite and blood sugar in check, according to a study by York University researchers.

Human Cells Engineered To Act As Sphincter Muscles
Researchers have built the first functional anal sphincters in the laboratory, suggesting a potential future treatment for incontinence.


August 9, 2011--------News Archive

What Is Your Child's Allergy Risk?
In a first of its kind study, babies followed from birth to 4 years were found to have less allergy and asthma attacks when their moms were exposed to allergens.

Teaching Pediatricians When and How to Toilet Train
Potty training beginning at 18 months seems to be about average.


August 8, 2011--------News Archive

Why Women Suffer More Autoimmune Disease
The reason why diseases such as lupus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis strike women more frequently than men.

Potential New Eye Tumor Treatment Discovered
Mistakes in some microRNAs help cells lacking tumor-suppressing Rb protein to proliferate into retinoblastoma.

Amniotic Fluid Can Monitor Earlier Fetal Development
New technology help determine fetal health earlier.

WHO Child Growth Charts

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, have been found to reduce the severity of postpartum breast cancers in animal models.

“We caution patients and providers that because a mother’s body is undergoing radical changes during this time, we can’t yet speak to the safety of these drugs for women diagnosed with or at risk for postpartum breast cancer, and thus can’t yet recommend NSAIDs as a preventative therapy or cancer treatment,” says Pepper Schedin, PhD, investigator at the University of Colorado Cancer Center and professor in the division of medical oncology at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.

The story starts with breast involution – the process by which milk-producing cells that are no longer needed are killed and replaced with fat cells. During this time of change, the breast is especially susceptible to the development of cancer. In fact, recent studies show that women who have children before age 30 increase their risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer by 10% and women who wait to have children until after age 35 increase their risk by 30%.

Not only is breast cancer more prevalent in young mothers than women who have not had a child, but cancers diagnosed in the early years postpartum tend to be more aggressive, with increased risk of spreading to other organs. For example, one study reported that women diagnosed with cancer within two years of giving birth had a 40% five-year survival rate, as opposed to a 70% five-year survival rate for women diagnosed outside the postpartum window.

What this University of Colorado research team discovered is that breast involution shares similarities with wounds, and wounds can cause cells to become cancerous in addition to promoting metastasis of otherwise localized tumor cells. Two wound-like changes that occur in the postpartum breast are an increase in fibrous collagen (the protein that gives our flesh structure) and increase of an enzyme called COX-2.

In addition to causing inflammation and pain, COX-2 aids the formation of fibrous collagen, which in the process of wound healing serves as a highway along which healthy skin cells travel in order to close the wound. However, this collagen also forms a rich architecture for the growth and spread of cancers. In short, breast involution leads to COX-2, which leads to fibrous collagen, which promotes the release of more COX-2, and this positive feedback loop can help a tumor grow and push into other tissues.

It’s a vicious chain, but one with a weak link: many drugs exist that inhibit COX-2. These include the non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen, or celecoxib, which is a more targeted COX-2 inhibitor used in other inflammatory diseases like arthritis.

“Inhibition of COX-2 slows the formation of fibrillar collagen and thus both tumor growth and the tumor’s travel into the lung,” write Schedin and collaborators. Sure enough, Schedin and the research team found that in postpartum mice, ibuprofen and celecoxib treatment reduced mammary tumor size, collagen architecture, COX-2 expression, and breast tumor cell spreading into the lung.

However, recommending ibuprofen for women undergoing breast involution is premature. Schedin and Borges point out that early studies of vitamin A in lung cancer and vitamin E in prostate cancer at first found the vitamins to be cancer-fighting but eventually showed them to be cancer-promoting.

“It becomes a numbers game,” says Borges, “with the benefit of the drug weighed against its dangers. It seems as if the safety of these drugs is self-evident, but it’s only because we don’t fully understand the effects of NSAIDs during this unique period of a woman’s life, when her body is undergoing dramatic changes. So it becomes very important to study the effects of NSAID treatment in this particular group of women before we can make any prevention recommendations.”

This is about the fifth step down an extremely promising path toward identifying a simple, inexpensive, effective treatment of postpartum breast cancers.

But there are many steps still to go.

Pepper Schedin, PhD, teamed up on this study with Virginia Borges, MD, an expert in young women’s breast cancer who is also at the Cancer Center. First authors of this important paper are University of Colorado trainees, Drs. Traci Lyons and Jenean O’Brien.

Supported by Department of Defense Synergistic Idea Award #BC060531, Komen Foundation #KG090629, Mary Kay Ash Foundation #078-08 and University of Colorado Cancer Center grants to PS and VB, Department of Defense Award #BC074970 to PJK, American Cancer Society New England Division
Postdoctoral Fellowship Spin Odyssey #PF-08-257-01-CSM to TRL, Department of Defense Postdoctoral grant BC087579 to AM, and Department of Defense Predoctoral

Original article: http://www.coloradocancerblogs.org/news/common-class-of-pain-drugs-reduces-severity-of-postpartum-breast-cancers