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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
August 12, 2011--------News Archive

Team Unlocks Hidden Information in Human Genome

“Good Fat” Most Prevalent in Thin Children
Study at Joslin Diabetes Center and Children's Hospital Boston finds boosting brown fat levels may combat obesity epidemic.


August 11, 2011--------News Archive

Flame Retardant in California Pregnant Women
California’s strict flammability regulations may have led to levels two times higher for California residents than for people in the rest of the country.

Paper Money Worldwide Contains Bisphenol A
Research results also found that the most likely source of the BPA in the currency is the thermal paper used in cash register receipts.


August 10, 2011--------News Archive

Clues to How Hearts, Intestines and Key Organs Form
A newly-identified protein may hold the key to keeping appetite and blood sugar in check, according to a study by York University researchers.

Human Cells Engineered To Act As Sphincter Muscles
Researchers have built the first functional anal sphincters in the laboratory, suggesting a potential future treatment for incontinence.


August 9, 2011--------News Archive

What Is Your Child's Allergy Risk?
In a first of its kind study, babies followed from birth to 4 years were found to have less allergy and asthma attacks when their moms were exposed to allergens.

Teaching Pediatricians When and How to Toilet Train
Potty training beginning at 18 months seems to be about average.


August 8, 2011--------News Archive

Why Women Suffer More Autoimmune Disease
The reason why diseases such as lupus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis strike women more frequently than men.

Potential New Eye Tumor Treatment Discovered
Mistakes in some microRNAs help cells lacking tumor-suppressing Rb protein to proliferate into retinoblastoma.

Amniotic Fluid Can Monitor Earlier Fetal Development
New technology help determine fetal health earlier.

WHO Child Growth Charts


Increasing brown fat in children might be a way to fight obesity and diabetes.

Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center and Children’s Hospital Boston have shown that a type of “good” fat known as brown fat occurs in varying amounts in children – increasing until puberty and then declining -- and is most active in leaner children.

The study used PET imaging data to document children’s amounts and activity of brown fat, which, unlike white fat, burns energy instead of storing it. Results were published in The Journal of Pediatrics.

“Increasing the amount of brown fat in children may be an effective approach at combating the ever increasing rate of obesity and diabetes in children,” said Aaron Cypess, MD, PhD, an assistant investigator and staff physician at Joslin and senior author of the paper.

In 2009, Cypess’ team demonstrated in The New England Journal of Medicine for the first time that brown fat is metabolically active in adult humans. Previously, it was thought that brown fat was present only in babies and children. Their study showed it was found in between 3 and 7.5 percent of adults, with higher rates among women.

In this new study, the researchers reviewed PET scans that had been conducted on 172 children ages 5 to 21 at Children’s Hospital Boston.

Active brown fat was detected in 44 percent of the children, with the rate about the same for girls and boys. Children aged 13 to 15 had the highest percentage of detectable brown fat and the highest brown fat activity. But in addition, body mass index (BMI) was correlated inversely with brown fat activity, meaning that the thinnest children had the highest brown fat activity.

While the 2009 study of adults showed brown fat was more active in cold weather, in keeping with its role of burning energy to generate heat, the new study in children showed outdoor temperature had no effect on brown fat activity.

The increase in brown fat activity from childhood to adolescence and its inverse correlation with obesity suggest brown fat may play a prominent role in pediatric metabolism, energy balance and weight regulation, the authors said.

“We believe that the ability to non-invasively evaluate brown fat activity in vivo with PET imaging provides a better understanding of its prominent role in pediatric physiology, and may possibly provide insights into the treatment of childhood obesity,” said first author Laura Drubach, MD, of Children’s Hospital program in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

Cypess said the goal is to first search for nonpharmacological ways to increase brown fat activity, perhaps by setting indoor temperatures colder in homes where obese children live. Perhaps certain foods could also play a role in increasing brown fat levels, he said. If not, the development of new drugs might be the answer, he added.

A 2010 Joslin study identified cells in mice that can be triggered to transform into brown fat.

“We might be able to combat the obesity and diabetes epidemics if we find safe ways of increasing brown fat activity,” Cypess said. “This might be an additional tool in the fight.”

However, he said there are still many questions to be answered. For example, it is not known whether the relationship between BMI and brown fat is that children have more brown fat because they are thin or if having more brown fat causes children to be thin.

“That’s the billion dollar question,” he said. ”But we do know that brown fat is a core component of pediatric and likely adult metabolism.”

Co-authors of the study included Amanda Baker, BS and David Zurakowsky, PhD, both of Children’s Hospital Boston; and Edwin L. Palmer III, MD and Leonard P. Connolly, MD, both of Massachusetts General Hospital.

The study was supported by grants from the Eli Lilly Foundation and the National Institutes of Health.

Original article: http://www.joslin.org/news/good-fat-most-prevalent-in-thin-children.html