Welcome to The Visible Embryo

Home- - -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- News Alerts -Contact

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

Return To Top Of Page
Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
September 2, 2011--------News Archive

'Gene Overdose' Causes Extreme Thinness
Scientists have discovered a genetic cause of extreme thinness for the first time.

Genetics Meets Metabolomics
A closer look at each individual's metabolites might lead to a better estimation for that individual's risk for developing complex common diseases.

September 1, 2011--------News Archive

Parents’ Stress Leaves Marks on Children’s Genes
Epigenetics changes the expression of genes, and can induce long lasting changes in our children when they are exposed our to stress.

Gene Defect Linked to Disfiguring Disorder
The faulty gene responsible for Proteus syndrome, a rare disorder of uncontrolled growth of certain body tissues and organs, has been identified

August 31, 2011--------News Archive

Mom's Morning Sickness May Affect Infant Brain
Extreme morning sickness could lead to lifelong emotional, behavioral disorders in kids.

Stanford Invents Sutureless Joining of Blood Vessels
Sutures are difficult to use on blood vessels less than 1 mm wide. Now, Stanford University has a glue which works on extremely slim blood vessels 0.2 mm wide.

August 30, 2011--------News Archive

Mouse Model Brings New Ideas on Lafora Disease
Researchers at IRB Barcelona have demonstrated a link between abnormal sugar accumulation and the neuronal degeneration characteristic of Lafora disease.

Bilingual Babies' Display Early Brain Differentiation
Babies and children are whizzes at learning a second language, but that ability begins to fade as early as their first birthday.

August 29, 2011--------News Archive

Non Coding RNAs Direct Embryonic Development
Embryonic stem cells can either differentiate into cells of a specific lineage such as blood cells or neurons, or they can stay in a pluripotent state. Depending on RNAs.

Degrading One Protein Allows Cell to Divide
Found, a crucial element controlling segregation of genetic material from parent to daughter cells. Regulating CenH3 protein ensures correct cell division in Drosophila.

Going With the Flow
The egg develops through two asymmetric divisions, separating into daughter cells. However, microtubules don't pull apart the centromeres, just with the flow of actin.

A Light Answer to the Heavy Question of Cell Growth
A technique offers insight into the much-debated problem of whether cells grow at a constant rate or exponentially.

WHO Child Growth Charts


Parents' arguments are not short term, but follow their children through their genes.

Researchers at the University of British Columbia and the Child & Family Research Institute have shown that parental stress during their children’s early years can leave an imprint on their sons’ or daughters’ genes – an imprint that lasts into adolescence and may affect how these genes are expressed later in life.

The study, published online today in the journal Child Development, focused on epigenetics – the expression of genes as opposed to the underlying sequence of DNA. A central component of epigenetics is methylation, in which a chemical group attaches to parts of the DNA – a process that acts like a dimmer on gene function in response to social and physical environments.

Michael S. Kobor, a UBC associate professor of medical genetics, measured methylation patterns in cheek cell DNA collected recently by University of Wisconsin researchers from more than 100 adolescents. These patterns were compared to data obtained by the University of Wisconsin in 1990 and 1991, when these same children were infants and toddlers, and their parents were asked to report on their stress levels – including depression, family-expressed anger, parenting stress and financial stress.

Comparing DNA methylation to stress, Kobor’s team found that higher stress levels reported by mothers during their child’s first year correlated with methylation levels on 139 DNA sites in adolescents. They also discovered 31 sites that correlated with fathers’ higher reported stress during their child’s pre-school years (three-and-a-half to four-and-a-half years old).

“To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration, using carefully collected longitudinal data, that parental adversity during a child’s first years leads to discernible changes in his or her ‘epigenome,’ measurable more than a decade later,” says Kobor, a scientist at the Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics at the Child and Family Research Institute (CFRI), and a Mowafaghian Scholar at the Human Early Learning Partnership (HELP). “This literally illustrates a mechanism by which experiences ‘get under the skin’ to stay with us for a long time.”

The team also found that fathers’ stress level is more strongly associated with DNA methylation in daughters, while mothers’ stress level has an effect with both boys and girls. This reinforces other research showing that the absence of fathers or their lack of participation in parenting is associated with an earlier onset of puberty and difficult temperamental traits in girls, but not in boys.

In general, none of the genes whose methylation level correlated with stress were among those best known to play a role in controlling a person’s behaviour or reaction to environmental stress. But they did find some genes that had a consistent change in methylation levels at more than one site on the DNA, including one involved in the production of insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar levels, and three other genes possibly involved in brain development.

“What is particularly intriguing is that a mother’s higher stress levels during infancy, but not during the preschool years, leads to epigenetic changes,” says co-author Clyde Hertzman, a professor in UBC’s School of Population and Public Health and director of HELP.

“And the opposite is true for fathers – it’s their higher stress during a child’s preschool years, but not during their infancy, that counts.”

“These results confirm what early childhood experts have long known – those first few years are a crucial period that sets the stage for much of what happens to the individual later in life,” said co-author Thomas Boyce, a professor at UBC’s Human Early Learning Partnership and a scientist at CFRI.

“It helps explain why a child’s socioeconomic status is the single most powerful predictor of childhood health and that individual’s lifelong health.”

The UBC team’s collaborators at the University of Wisconsin were Marilyn J. Essex, a professor of psychiatry, and Jeffrey Armstrong, a psychiatry researcher. UBC research assistants Lucia Lam and Sarah Neumann performed the work in Michael Kobor’s lab. The research was supported by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research and the Djavad Mowafaghian Foundation.

Original article: http://www.publicaffairs.ubc.ca/2011/08/30/parents’-stress-leaves-lasting-marks-on-children’s-genes-ubc-cfri-research/