Welcome to The Visible Embryo

 

 

Home-- -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- -Contact
 

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform


The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and
patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

 

Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
 

Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts |News Archive June 20, 2014

 



Illustration from: Impact of Environmental Chemicals on Lung Development
by Mark D. Miller and Melanie A. Marty



 






WHO Child Growth Charts

 

 

 

Gene 'dark matter' controls embryo lung growth

Only about two percent of our genome converts into proteins. A much higher percentage is transcribed into RNA — sometimes referred to as "genomic dark matter." Given the vast amount of RNA, scientists believe it must impact fetal development.

Large-scale genomic sequencing has allowed investigators to identify thousands of non-coding RNAs. Small non-coding RNAs - including microRNAs - are known to be important in turning on and off genes needed for tissue development. On the other hand, the function of long non-coding RNAs — lncRNAs — is less understood.

Edward Morrisey, PhD, professor of Medicine, Cell and Developmental Biology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and scientific director of the Penn Institute for Regenerative Medicine, has identified hundreds of lncRNAs in his research.

lncRNAs, "genomic dark matter," is expressed in fetal development as well as in our adult lung. Featured on the cover of Genes and Development, Morrisey's lab has found that lung lncRNAs appear to regulate the opening and closing of the DNA scaffold.

Morrisey's team identified 363 long non-coding RNAs in the lungs and foregut (also known as endoderm) layers of embryonic mice.


"We have defined a new association: long non-coding RNAs having transcription factor proteins bound to specific DNA sequences to control cell identity and function. This association is important for lung development in mouse embryos, and we believe at least one of those long non-coding RNAs is important in human lung function."

Edward E. Morrisey, PhD, professor of Medicine, Cell and Developmental Biology at the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania; and, scientific director of the Penn Institute for Regenerative Medicine.

Morrisey's team found that a lncRNA called NANCI regulates the critical transcription factor Nkx2.1.

Nkx2.1 is the first lung molecular marker appearing in mouse and human development — and is essential for lungs to mature properly in either species.


NANCI appears to act prior to creation of Nkx2.1, but after Wnt signaling which is critical to later lung development. Turning off NANCI decreases Nkx2.1 which in turn decreases creation of surfactant proteins. Surfactant protects the lining of lung airways and marks invading bacteria for destruction by the immune system.

A single copy mutation of NKX2.1 leads to Brain-Lung-Thyroid Syndrome with the infant in respiratory distress immediately following birth. "There is also a report of a patient with a deletion in NANCI — but not NKX2.1 — who has Brain-Lung-Thyroid Syndrome. This suggests that mutations in NANCI (and perhaps other lncRNAs) may underlie human disease," explains Morrisey.


In addition to NANCI, the team identified another lncRNA, which they named LL34. LL34 regulates retinoic acid signaling, another important pathway for early lung development and highly expressed in the developing foregut layers.

The foregut of an embryo generates multiple tissue types including lung, thyroid and liver. Turning off LL34 leads to decreased retinoic acid signaling, suggesting lncRNA plays an early and important role in development of the lung and other critical organs.


Other lncRNAs expressed in the lung, such as MALAT1, play a role in cancer progression. However, data generated by the Morrisey lab provides a unique insight into which lncRNAs regulate development of the lung only.

"We are hopeful that this new data provides the foundation for a better understanding of how the non-coding transcriptome regulates tissue development and also maintenance of adult tissues,"
says Morrisey. Future work will be directed towards understanding how these lncRNAs may also contribute to adult lung regeneration.

Abstract
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are thought to play important roles in regulating gene transcription, but few have well-defined expression patterns or known biological functions during mammalian development. Using a conservative pipeline to identify lncRNAs that have important biological functions, we identified 363 lncRNAs in the lung and foregut endoderm. Importantly, we show that these lncRNAs are spatially correlated with transcription factors across the genome. In-depth expression analyses of lncRNAs with genomic loci adjacent to the critical transcription factors Nkx2.1, Gata6, Foxa2 (forkhead box a2), and Foxf1 mimic the expression patterns of their protein-coding neighbor. Loss-of-function analysis demonstrates that two lncRNAs, LL18/NANCI (Nkx2.1-associated noncoding intergenic RNA) and LL34, play distinct roles in endoderm development by controlling expression of critical developmental transcription factors and pathways, including retinoic acid signaling. In particular, we show that LL18/NANCI acts upstream of Nkx2.1 and downstream from Wnt signaling to regulate lung endoderm gene expression. These studies reveal that lncRNAs play an important role in foregut and lung endoderm development by regulating multiple aspects of gene transcription, often through regulation of transcription factor expression.


Additional coauthors are Michael J. Herriges, Michael P. Morley, Komal S. Rathi, Tien Peng, and Kathleen M. Stewart, all from Penn and Daniel T. Swarr, from The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Studies in the Morrisey lab were supported by funding from the National Heart and Lung Institute (HL100405, HL110942).

Penn Medicine is one of the world's leading academic medical centers, dedicated to the related missions of medical education, biomedical research, and excellence in patient care. Penn Medicine consists of the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania (founded in 1765 as the nation's first medical school) and the University of Pennsylvania Health System, which together form a $4.3 billion enterprise.

The Perelman School of Medicine has been ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States for the past 17 years, according to U.S. News & World Report's survey of research-oriented medical schools. The School is consistently among the nation's top recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health, with $392 million awarded in the 2013 fiscal year.

The University of Pennsylvania Health System's patient care facilities include: The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania -- recognized as one of the nation's top "Honor Roll" hospitals by U.S. News & World Report; Penn Presbyterian Medical Center; Chester County Hospital; Penn Wissahickon Hospice; and Pennsylvania Hospital -- the nation's first hospital, founded in 1751. Additional affiliated inpatient care facilities and services throughout the Philadelphia region include Chestnut Hill Hospital and Good Shepherd Penn Partners, a partnership between Good Shepherd Rehabilitation Network and Penn Medicine.

Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and activities. In fiscal year 2013, Penn Medicine provided $814 million to benefit our community.

Return to top of page