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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform


The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and
patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

 

Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
 

Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts |News Archive July 4, 2014

Studies have shown that magnesium (Mg2+) plays a critical role in helping neurons form memories through “coincidence detection.” A major memory theory is that brain neurons
store information through a process called long term potentiation (LTP). Neurons form
synaptic connections and those connections strengthen with each new memory.

Foods that are rich in magnesium are rice, wheat, oats, almonds, cashews, and dark leafy greens.
Also, dark chocolate has some of the highest magnesium of all!
Images made by Ryan Jones for Knowing Neurons

 






WHO Child Growth Charts

 

 

 

3-D view of brain's center of memory and learning

Researchers with Oregon Health & Science University's Vollum Institute have given science a new and unprecedented 3-D view of one of the most important areas in the brain — a receptor that allows us to learn and remember.

Dysfunction in the N-methyl-D-aspartate, or NMDA receptor, is involved in a wide range of neurological diseases and conditions. The unprecedented 3D view was provided by OHSU research, and published online June 22 in the journal Nature.

With 3D visibility, scientists can see the receptor is in the shape of a circle which may help in developing drugs to combat neurological disease. "The NMDA receptor is one of the most essential receptors in our brain. Now we can see it in fascinating detail," says Eric Gouaux, a senior scientist at the Vollum Institute and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator.


Receptors facilitate chemical and electrical signals between neurons in the brain, allowing them to communicate with each other.

Malfunction of the NMDA receptor occurs at moments of increasing and decreasing activity between neurons. Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, depression, schizophrenia and epilepsy are linked to problems with NMDA activity.

The receptor is also made up of “subunits" — each with distinct properties.


Gouaux's 3-D model was made using X-ray crystallography — a process which bounces x-ray beams off an object while a computer calibrates the makeup of the structure based on the beams reflected back. Gouaux's 3-D model not only reflected the specific location of subunits in the complex, but gave insight into subunit activity levels during the scanning process.

"This detailed view will be invaluable as we work to develop drugs for specific subunits in order to help fight or improve neurological diseases and conditions," Gouaux added. "Seeing a structure in more detail can unlock some of its secrets — and may end up helping a lot of people."

Abstract
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are Hebbian-like coincidence detectors, requiring binding of glycine and glutamate in combination with the relief of voltage-dependent magnesium block to open an ion conductive pore across the membrane bilayer. Despite the importance of the NMDA receptor in the development and function of the brain, a molecular structure of an intact receptor has remained elusive. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of the Xenopus laevis GluN1–GluN2B NMDA receptor with the allosteric inhibitor, Ro25-6981, partial agonists and the ion channel blocker, MK-801. Receptor subunits are arranged in a 1-2-1-2 fashion, demonstrating extensive interactions between the amino-terminal and ligand-binding domains. The transmembrane domains harbour a closed-blocked ion channel, a pyramidal central vestibule lined by residues implicated in binding ion channel blockers and magnesium, and a ~twofold symmetric arrangement of ion channel pore loops. These structures provide new insights into the architecture, allosteric coupling and ion channel function of NMDA receptors.


Scientists working with Eric Gouraux: Chia-Hsueh Lee, Wei Lu, Jennifer Michel, April Goehring, Juan Du and Xianqiang Song

The research was funded by a gift from Bernard and Jennifer Lacroute, along with a grant from the National Institutes of Health (#R37NS038631) and support from the Vollum Institute. Chia-Hsueh Lee is supported by an OHSU Brain Institute Fellowship, funded by Ronni Lacroute.

Abbout the OHSU Vollum Institute
The Vollum Institute is a privately endowed research institute at OHSU and is dedicated to basic research that will lead to new treatments for neurological and psychiatric diseases. Vollum scientists have transformed the field of neuroscience and, in particular, have been pioneers in the study of cellular signaling, neuronal development, gene regulation and the neurobiology of disease.

About OHSU
Oregon Health & Science University is a nationally prominent research university and Oregon’s only public academic health center. It serves patients throughout the region with a Level 1 trauma center and nationally recognized Doernbecher Children’s Hospital. OHSU operates dental, medical, nursing and pharmacy schools that rank high both in research funding and in meeting the university’s social mission. OHSU’s Knight Cancer Institute helped pioneer personalized medicine through a discovery that identified how to shut down cells that enable cancer to grow without harming healthy ones. OHSU Brain Institute scientists are nationally recognized for discoveries that have led to a better understanding of Alzheimer’s disease and new treatments for Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and stroke. OHSU’s Casey Eye Institute is a global leader in ophthalmic imaging, and in clinical trials related to eye disease.



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