Welcome to The Visible Embryo

Home- - -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- News Alerts -Contact

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

Return To Top Of Page
Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
April 29, 2011--------News Archive

Catching Autism At The 1-year Well-Baby Check-Up
A novel strategy developed by autism researchers at the University of California, San Diego, shows promise as a simple way to detect cases of Autism Syndrome.

A New Wrinkle In The Genetic Code
Long ago a mouse was created that is just now teaching us that mutations in the proteins produced from ribosomes can lead to unexpected birth defects.


April 28, 2011--------News Archive

Tired Neurons Nod Off in Sleep-Deprived Rats
The more rats are sleep-deprived, the more neurons take catnaps. Though the animals are awake and active, neurons in the cortex, are briefly falling asleep.

Obese Adolescents Lacking Vitamin D
Vitamin D status is significantly associated with muscle power/force; a deficiency may interfere with the obese adolescent's ability to increase physical activity.


April 27, 2011--------News Archive

Men and Women Respond Differently to PTSD
Men and women had starkly different immune system responses to chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Men show no response, women show a strong one.

Motor Protein May Offer Promise In Ovarian Cancer
A regulatory motor protein can block ovarian tumor growth, leading to cancer cell death and new therapies to treat the disease.


April 26, 2011--------News Archive

Protein Levels Could Signal Childhood Diabetes
Decreasing blood levels of a protein that helps control inflammation may be a red flag that could help children avoid type 1 diabetes.

Best Treatment For Gestational Tumors
A clinical trial has sifted out the most effective chemotherapy regimen for quick-growing but highly curable cancers arising from the placentas of pregnant women.


April 25, 2011--------News Archive

Frog Embryos Teach Us About Heart Development
Thanks to new research at the University of Pennsylvania, there is new insight into the processes that regulate the formation of the heart.

Brain Cells Offer Insight on How Cancer Spreads
The mechanism regulating embryonic development in plants displays similarities to a signalling pathway in embryonic stem cells in mammals.

WHO Child Growth Charts

Low vitamin D levels may be contributing to obesity in teens.

A new study from Hasbro Children's Hospital has found that most obese adolescents are lacking in vitamin D.

The researchers call for increased surveillance of vitamin D levels in teens and for further studies to determine if normalizing vitamin D levels will help to lower the health risks associated with obesity. The study is published in the May edition of the Journal of Adolescent Health and is now available online in advance of print. Obesity in children and adolescents has reached epidemic proportions, with a prevalence of 16.4 percent among 10 to 17 year olds as of 2007.

Increased obesity may lead to increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, as well as to an increased risk of cancer. Some of these health consequences of obesity have also been associated with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency. In addition, vitamin D status is significantly associated with muscle power/force, and therefore, a deficiency may interfere with the obese adolescent's ability to increase physical activity.

Lead author Zeev Harel, M.D., a pediatrician specializing in adolescent medicine at Hasbro Children's Hospital, reports that screening obese adolescents for vitamin D status by measuring their blood 25 OH D level has become a routine protocol at the Adolescent Health Center of Hasbro Children's Hospital in Providence, R.I. since 2007.

For this retrospective study, Harel and his co-authors explored the prevalence of low vitamin D status among 68 obese adolescents, and examined the impact of treatment of low vitamin D status in these patients.

The study found that low vitamin D status was present in all of the girls (72 percent deficient and 28 percent insufficient) and in 91 percent of the boys (69 percent deficient and 22 percent insufficient). Of those with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, 43 patients had a repeat measurement of vitamin D level after treatment. While there was a significant increase in vitamin D levels following treatment, serum vitamin D levels normalized in only 28percent of these patients. Repeat multiple courses of vitamin D treatment in the patients who did not normalize their vitamin D levels after initial course, failed to normalize their low vitamin D status.

Harel says, "The prevalence of low vitamin D status among obese adolescents in this study is greater than previously reported for this age group. It is concerning to us that only 28 percent of the adolescents were able to reach normal vitamin D levels through one course of treatment of the recommended dose of vitamin D, while the other 72 percent failed to normalize their levels even with repeat treatments".

Vitamin D may be sequestered in body fat and this likely is the major reason for the lack of response.

The main source of vitamin D is production in the skin; a process that is stimulated by exposure to sunlight. In addition, small amounts are derived from certain foods like oily fish, eggs, and from fortified foods such as dairy products and breakfast cereals.

Researchers state, "It is possible that the association between obesity and low vitamin D status is indirect, arising from obese individuals having fewer outdoor activities than lean individuals, and therefore, less exposure to sun. Likewise, is it also possible that obese individuals do not consume enough foods that contain vitamin D".

The researchers question whether a higher daily vitamin D intake than the one recently recommended by the Institute of Medicine (600 international units of vitamin D/day) may be required as part of treatment in obese adolescents, in an attempt to increase their vitamin D status.

Harel says, "It also remains to be determined in future studies whether certain conditions such as obesity require a higher cut-off of vitamin D blood levels in an attempt to prevent health consequences of obesity."

"Based on the findings from this study, we are calling for increased surveillance of obese adolescents whose vitamin D levels do not normalize after initial course of treatment. In addition, prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether normalizing vitamin D levels in obese adolescents will help lower the health risks associated with obesity," says Harel.

Harel's principal affiliation is Hasbro Children's Hospital, the pediatric division of Rhode Island Hospital, and part of the Lifespan health system in Rhode Island. Direct financial and infrastructure support for this project was received through the Lifespan Office of Research Administration. The researcher also has an academic appointment as Professor of Pediatrics at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University. Co-authors on this study include Patricia Flanagan, M.D., Michelle Forcier, M.D. and Dalia Harel, M.Sc., of Hasbro Children's Hospital and Brown Warren Alpert Medical School

Hasbro Children's Hospital (www.hasbrochildrenshospital.org) in Providence, R.I., is a private, not-for-profit institution, it is the pediatric division of Rhode Island Hospital. Rhode Island Hospital is the principal teaching hospital of The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University. It was ranked among the top 30 children's hospitals in the country by Parents magazine in 2009.

Original article: http://www.lifespan.org/news/2011/04/27/obese-adolescents-lacking-vitamin-d/