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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
November 18, 2011--------News Archive

Increasing Uterine Development Genes Improve IVF
Increasing certain developmental genes at precise times in the uterus might improve pregnancy rates from in vitro fertilization-embryo transfers (IVF-ET).

“Silent” Strokes in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia
Silent strokes are the most common form of neurological injury found in SCA, with more than 25 percent of children with the disorder suffering a SCI by age six and nearly 40 percent by age 14.

Mystery Atom In Enzyme Critical for Life
All life requires the element nitrogen from the atmosphere to form amino acids and build proteins. But how to single out the atom in the middle of the process?

November 17, 2011--------News Archive

Breast-Milk Stem Cells!
Embryonic-like stem cells have been isolated from breast milk in large numbers.

All Mammals Share Common Brain Organization
Animal studies show that the outer layer of the brain – the cortex – is organized by genes which exhibit highly similar regional patterns between species.

3 p.m. Slump? A Sugar Rush Is NOT The Answer
Protein, not sugar, stimulates cells to keep us thin and awake, new study suggests

November 16, 2011--------News Archive

Delayed Cord Clamping Protects Babe from Iron Loss
Waiting for at least three minutes before clamping the umbilical cord in healthy newborns improves their iron levels at four months.

Mom's Brain More Damaged by Alcohol than Dad's
After only four years of problem drinking, a significant decrease in the function of the serotonin system in women's brains can be seen.

Regenerative Medicine
Engineered, Blood Vessels Reverse Anemia in Mice
System combining gene therapy with tissue engineering could avoid the need for frequent injections of recombinant drugs.

November 15, 2011--------News Archive

Parkinson's Greater if Exposed to Trichloroethylene
Symptoms of disease may appear 10 to 40 years following exposure.

Fetal Placental Stem Cells May Help Maternal Heart
Researchers have discovered the therapeutic benefit of fetal stem cells in helping

Pituitary-Like Tissue Grown From Mouse Stem Cells
Creating functional, three-dimensional tissue and organs from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (EScs) is one of the grand challenges of stem cell research.

November 14, 2011--------News Archive

Dyslexia Not Tied To Low IQ
Research on brain activity fails to support widely believed expectation that dyslexic students may have lower reading ability.

Intestinal E. coli Can Convert Sugar to Biodiesel Fuel
Biodiesel can be generated using E. coli as a catalyst, which will produce high volumes of the fuel with just a little tweaking of the bacteria's cell controls.

Cooked Food May Account For Human Big Brains
Harvard study finds an increase in energy from meat, suggesting cooking food was key to human evolution.

WHO Child Growth Charts

Patients who rely on recombinant, protein-based drugs must often endure frequent injections, often several times a week, or intravenous therapy. Researchers at Children's Hospital Boston demonstrate the possibility that blood vessels, made from genetically engineered cells, could secrete the drug on demand directly into the bloodstream.

They provide proof-of-concept, reversing anemia in mice with engineered vessels secreting erythropoietin (EPO), in the November 17 issue of the journal Blood.

The technology could potentially be used to deliver other proteins such as Factor VIII and Factor IX for patients with hemophilia, alpha interferon for hepatitis C and interferon beta for multiple sclerosis, says the study's principal investigator, Juan Melero-Martin, PhD, of the Department of Cardiac Surgery at Children's.

Such drugs are currently made in bioreactors by engineered cells, and are very expensive to make in large amounts. "The paradigm shift here is, 'why don't we instruct your own cells to be the factory?'" says Melero-Martin, also an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School.

The researchers created the drug-secreting vessels by isolating endothelial colony-forming cells from human blood and inserting a gene instructing the cells to produce EPO.

They then added mesenchymal stem cells, suspended the cells in a gel, and injected this mixture into the mice, just under the skin.

The cells spontaneously formed networks of blood vessels, lined with the engineered endothelial cells. Within a week, the vessels hooked up with the animals' own vessels, releasing EPO into the bloodstream.

Tests showed that the drug circulated throughout the body and reversed anemia in the mice, both induced by radiation (as often occurs in cancer patients) and by loss of kidney tissue (modeling chronic kidney failure). Mice with the vessel implants had significantly higher hematocrits (a measure of red blood cell concentration) and recovered from anemia more quickly than controls.

The system also had a built-in on/off control: the inserted EPO-encoding gene was linked to a repressor protein that prevented it from being turned on unless the mice were given the oral drug doxycycline (added to their drinking water).

Doxycycline disabled the repressor protein, allowing EPO to be made. When doxycycline was added to the water on a weekly on/off schedule, the animals' hematocrit fluctuated accordingly. When hematocrit reached a normal level, the system could be switched off by simply giving them plain water.

Melero-Martin and colleagues are looking at ways to deliver doxycycline through the skin to avoid exposing the whole body to an antibiotic. There are also other ways to design the genetic on/off control, using synthetic systems or even regulatory elements used naturally by the body – sensing blood oxygen levels and stimulating EPO production when oxygen levels dip.

A traditional barrier to gene therapy has been getting the genetically altered cells to engraft and stay in place. Blood-vessel implants are an ideal platform technology for gene therapy applications whose goal is systemic drug delivery, says Melero-Martin.

"Blood vessels are one of the few tissues where we have good control over engraftment," he says. "Endothelial cells are easily isolated from blood, are good at assembling themselves into blood vessels, and are ideal for releasing compounds into the bloodstream, since they line the blood vessels."

The lab is interested in trying this system with other therapeutic proteins, and is also exploring ways to get cells to release therapeutics at a moment's notice by getting accumulating stores in advance that could be released upon the proper signal, as beta cells in the pancreas do with insulin, for example.

In addition, Melero-Martin wants to explore regenerative medicine applications, creating blood vessels with genetic instructions to produce factors that attract stem cells or induce cells to differentiate.

The study was funded by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB) of the National Institutes of Health and the Children's Hospital Boston Department of Cardiac Surgery. Ruei-Zeng Lin, PhD, a research fellow in the Department of Cardiac Surgery at Children's, was first author on the paper.

Children's Hospital Boston is home to the world's largest research enterprise based at a pediatric medical center, where its discoveries have benefited both children and adults since 1869. More than 1,100 scientists, including nine members of the National Academy of Sciences, 11 members of the Institute of Medicine and nine members of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute comprise Children's research community. Founded as a 20-bed hospital for children, Children's Hospital Boston today is a 395 bed comprehensive center for pediatric and adolescent health care grounded in the values of excellence in patient care and sensitivity to the complex needs and diversity of children and families. Children's also is the primary pediatric teaching affiliate of Harvard Medical School. For more information about research and clinical innovation at Children's, visit: http://vectorblog.org.

Original article: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-11/chb-edb111511.php