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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
December 2, 2011--------News Archive

Working Moms Multitask More Than Dads
Not only are working mothers multitasking more frequently than working fathers, but their multitasking experience is more negative as well.

Unlocking the Genetic Mystery of Sarcomas
Study uncovers potential targets for treating a disease affecting children and adults.

When Babies Wake, Cortisol Rises to Mom's Level
The hormone cortisol in adults rises and lowers according to stress. But in babies cortisol remains level following waking - and tunes in with mom's level.

December 1, 2011--------News Archive

Home Births – Then and Now
A comparison of home-birth trends of the 1970s finds many similarities – and some differences – related to trends in home births today.

Risk of Suicide In Pregnant Women, New Mothers
An analysis of new data highlights risk factors that could be targeted by interventions.

Addiction Damages PreFrontal Cortex
Brain structure-function impairment may be related to an inability to assess rewards and consequences, behavior associated with addiction.

November 30, 2011--------News Archive

Gene Puts Brakes On Breast Cancer Progression
Newly published research explores the role of gene in tumour suppression

‘Perfect Parent’ Not A Good Idea
Seeking perfection as a parent works better for dads than for moms.

Kindergarten Friendships Matter, Especially for Boys
High-quality friendships in kindergarten may mean that boys will have fewer behavior problems and better social skills in first and third grades.

November 29, 2011--------News Archive

Cleft Lip Corrected Genetically in Mouse Model
Scientists have successfully genetically repaired cleft lips in mice embryos specially engineered for the study of cleft lip and cleft palate.

Common Herbicide Creates Reproductive Problems
International researchers link exposure to atrazine – an herbicide widely used in the U.S. and more than 60 other nations – to reproductive problems in animals.

Environment and Diet Leave Imprints On the Heart
DNA methylation in the human heart has revealed the 'missing link' between lifestyle and health, and may indicate methylation creates the equivalent of 5, 6, 7 and 8 bases by modifying Cytosines across our entire genome.

November 28, 2011--------News Archive

Role of Nuclear Membrane Protein in Organ Growth
Scientists had thought B-type lamin proteins were vital to embryonic stem cells; but they are more critical to organ formation.

Hormone Hepcidin May Control Atherosclerosis
Hepcidin is a hormone produced by the liver and regulates iron transport. Blocking its production encourages macrophages to counter atherosclerosis.

Two Enzymes Stamp DNA with "Turn Off" Signal
Inside the cell nucleus, DNA is wound around spool-like proteins called histones. Two modifications in this attachment tell a portion of the DNA to be on or off.

WHO Child Growth Charts



Cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common birth defects, with treatment requiring multiple cycles of surgery, speech therapy and orthodontics. To date, there have been very few pre-clinical methods that allow researchers to study the molecular causes of these malformations. In particular, there has been a lack of animal models that accurately reflect the contribution of multiple genes to these congenital deformities in humans.

In a report in a recent issue of the journal Developmental Cell, Dr. Licia Selleri, associate professor of cell and developmental biology at Weill Cornell Medical College, and her co-authors report the first multigenic mouse model of cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

The researchers uncovered the role of genes for Pbx (Pre-B Cell Leukemia Transcription Factor) proteins in coordinating cellular signaling behaviors crucial for the development of these abnormalities. They also discovered that altering one type of molecule within the Wnt signaling pathway (that comprises a network of proteins best known for their roles in embryogenesis) is sufficient to correct the defects.

Dr. Selleri has studied Pbx proteins for many years and has previously demonstrated their involvement in organ and skeletal development. In her latest study, she and her collaborators, including postdoctoral fellows Drs. Elisabetta Ferretti and Bingsi Li, tested whether these proteins also play a role in facial development by using mutant mice that lacked various combinations of three Pbx genes in the ectoderm, the embryonic cell layer that gives rise to the lip and nose.

The researchers found that only mutations affecting multiple Pbx genes resulted in complete cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, in all of the mouse embryos with these compound mutations. This finding differs from those of previous studies using other mammal models of these conditions, in which a mutation in a single gene produced defects in only some of the animals, Dr. Selleri says. The role of Pbx genes in the development of the shape of the face is a new and surprising finding, she adds.

Moreover, the mouse embryos with multiple Pbx mutations also had reduced or absent Wnt activity, which plays a prominent role in embryo development, within the ectoderm. Dr. Ferretti, the first author of this study, found that Pbx genes regulate a chain of signaling molecules implicated in cleft lip with or without cleft palate, including Wnt, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), p63, and interferon regulatory factor 6 (Irf6) — signaling pathways that exist across mammal species. Disturbances in this network lead to a decrease in programmed cell death, thereby interfering with the proper fusion of facial tissues and resulting in cleft lip.

When Dr. Li, the second author of this study, used genetic methods to restore Wnt activity in the ectoderm of mouse embryos with compound Pbx mutations, the cleft lips in all of these animals completely disappeared.

"To my knowledge, this is the first time that anyone has corrected this defect in embryos, and we really show here that Wnt is a critical factor," Dr. Selleri says. "This is a very provocative result because it opens a completely new avenue of strategies for tissue repair."

To follow up on this work, Dr. Selleri plans to test whether supplying Wnt molecules to Pbx-mutated mouse embryos placed within an environment that mimics the uterus is sufficient to correct or even prevent the abnormalities.

Compared with genetic manipulations, this approach of delivering Wnt signals directly to the uterus would be more realistic for implementation in humans, Dr. Selleri says. She has just initiated a collaboration with Jason Spector, assistant professor of plastic surgery at Weill Cornell Medical College and with Larry Bonassar, associate professor of biomedical engineering at Cornell University.

to envision Wnt-related strategies for tissue repair, such as tissue implants that would deliver Wnt molecules to correct these defects either in utero before the birth of the fetus, or after birth without the need of many surgeries.

Additional study collaborators include Rediet Zewdu and Victoria Wells of Weill Cornell Medical College; Jean M. Hebert of Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx, N.Y.; Courtney Karner of the University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center, in Dallas, Texas; Matthew J. Anderson of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Md.; Trevor Williams of the University of Colorado, Denver; Jill Dixon and Michael J. Dixon of the University of Manchester in the U.K.; and Michael J. Depew of King's College London in the U.K.

The research was supported by a Marie Curie Fellowship, the Medical Research Council in the U.K., the Royal Society, King's College London, March of Dimes and Birth Defects Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, the Cleft Palate Foundation, and the Alice Bohmfalk Trust.

Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University's medical school located in New York City, is committed to excellence in research, teaching, patient care and the advancement of the art and science of medicine, locally, nationally and globally. Physicians and scientists of Weill Cornell Medical College are engaged in cutting-edge research from bench to bedside, aimed at unlocking mysteries of the human body in health and sickness and toward developing new treatments and prevention strategies. In its commitment to global health and education, Weill Cornell has a strong presence in places such as Qatar, Tanzania, Haiti, Brazil, Austria and Turkey. Through the historic Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, the Medical College is the first in the U.S. to offer its M.D. degree overseas. For more information, visit weill.cornell.edu.

Original article: http://weill.cornell.edu/news/releases/wcmc/wcmc_2011/11_28_11.shtml