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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

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The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and
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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
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Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts |News Archive Oct 3, 2014

University of Florida scientists warned against leaving bottled water in a hot garage for weeks or
in your car all day during the summer.
“If you store water long enough, there may be even more
concern,”
Lena Ma PhD, professor of water science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

 






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Don’t drink from (warm) plastic bottles!

America take warning from a University of Florida study of bottled water in China. Don’t drink a liquid if you’ve left it somewhere warm for a long time — like the trunk of your car. Plastic bottles are made of polyethylene terephthalate and when heated "leak" two toxic chemicals: antimony and bisphenol A — or BPA.


While the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has said BPA is not a major concern at the levels found in beverage containers, it continues to record the chemical’s impact.

Some health officials, including those at the Mayo Clinic, have found that BPA produces "negative effects" on children’s health.

Antimony is considered a carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization.


University of Florida soil and water science professor Lena Ma led a research team that studied chemicals released in 16 brands of bottled water kept at 158 degrees Fahrenheit for four weeks — what researchers consider a “worst-case scenario” for human consumption.

Of the 16 brands, only one exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for antimony and BPA. Based on an EPA study, storage at warm temperatures would seem not to be a big problem, Ma added. However, she believes more research is needed. Ma found in her own study that as bottles warmed over a four-week period, antimony and BPA levels increased as the chemicals were released from the softened plastic.


“If you store water long enough, there may be even more concern,”

Lena Q. Ma PhD, professor of Biogeochemistry of Trace Metals, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, director of research program at Nanjing University, China.

University of Florida scientists warned against leaving bottled water in a hot garage for weeks on end or in your car all day during the summer.


Ma knows Chinese citizens lack faith in their local tap water and will leave bottled water in car trunks for weeks. China consumed 9.6 billion gallons of bottled water in 2011, making it the industry’s largest market. By comparison, Americans drank 9.1 billion gallons of bottled water in 2011, according to the International Bottled Water Association.

While most Americans don’t store bottled water in cars for extended periods of time, they often keep water bottles in a car for a day or two. Drinking that water occasionally won’t be dangerous, but regular use of warm bottled water could cause health issues, and Ma continues, it’s not just water containers that merit more study.


“More attention should be given to other drinks packaged with polyethylene terephthalate plastic, such as milk, coffee and acidic juice. We only tested pure water. But for acidic juice, the story may be different.”

Lena Q. Ma PhD


Although not part of the study, Ma suggests using tap water over bottled water. Both are regulated by the federal government, but tap is tested by the EPA while bottled water is tested by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

The study is published in this month’s edition of the journal Environmental Pollution.

Highlights
• Release of Sb and BPA from PET drinking-water bottles was investigated.
• Higher temperature at 70 °C induced significant release of Sb and BPA.
• Release of Sb and BPA increased with storage duration up to 4 weeks.
• Chronic intake of Sb in one brand was 409 and 1430 ng/kg/d for adult and child, higher than RfD of 400 ng/kg/d.
• Values for BPA were 8.95 and 31.3 ng/kg/d, well below RfD of 5 μg/kg/d.

Abstract
We investigated effects of storage temperature and duration on release of antimony (Sb) and bisphenol A (BPA) from 16 brands of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) drinking water bottles in China. After 1-week storage, Sb release increased from 1.88–8.32 ng/L at 4 °C, to 2.10–18.4 ng/L at 25 °C and to 20.3–2604 ng/L at 70 °C. The corresponding releases for BPA were less at 0.26–18.7, 0.62–22.6, and 2.89–38.9 ng/L. Both Sb and BPA release increased with storage duration up to 4-week, but their releasing rates decreased with storage time, indicating that Sb and BPA release from PET bottles may become stable under long term storage. Human health risk was evaluated based on the worst case, i.e., storage at 70 °C for 4-week. Chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by BPA release was below USEPA regulation, Sb release in one brand exceeded USEPA regulated CDI (400 ng/kg bw/d) with values of 409 and 1430 ng/kg bw/d for adult and children.

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