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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

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Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersLungs begin to produce surfactantImmune system beginningHead may position into pelvisFull TermPeriod of rapid brain growthWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisWhite fat begins to be madeImmune system beginningBrain convolutions beginBrain convolutions beginFetal liver is producing blood cellsSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
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Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts |News Archive Apr 3, 2015

Pregnant women should avoid smoking tobacco and being around
tobacco smoke to help prevent diabetes mellitus in their adult children.

 






 

 

Smoking increases diabetes in female baby as adult

Women whose parents smoked during their pregnancy had an increased risk for diabetes mellitus independent of risk factors such as their own birth weight or adult weight. This data adds to evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposure can contribute to adult diabetes mellitus.

The results were presented in a poster Saturday, March 7, at ENDO 2015, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in San Diego.


"From a public health perspective, reduced fetal environmental tobacco smoke exposure appears to be an important modifiable risk factor for diabetes mellitus in offspring, Medical doctors should consider advising pregnant smokers that emerging research suggests that ceasing tobacco smoking in the home may benefit offspring by reducing their risk of developing diabetes mellitus independent of the effects of adult body mass index or birth weight on diabetes risk."

Michele La Merrill MPH PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis.


Dr. La Merrill and her colleagues studied 1,801 diabetic daughters between the ages of 44 and 54 years who were born between 1959 and 1967 in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort in California. The study was designed to examine associations between prenatal exposures and health outcomes between parents and offspring. It was found that mothers who reported tobacco smoking during an early pregnancy interview, now had adult daughters with diabetes mellitus.

Researchers had collected data on parental tobacco smoking during pregnancy, race, occupation, report of parental diabetes and self-reporting of infant body weight at birth. They then interviewed the daughters by phone and through in-home visits with blood tests for glycated hemoglobin (hemoblogin A1c) to measure how well the daughters' diabetes was being controlled.


Prenatal smoking by mothers had a stronger association with their daughters' diabetes mellitus risk than prenatal smoking by fathers. This strong association remained after adjusting for parental race, diabetes, and employment — even after further adjustments for the daughters' birth weight or current body mass index.


With these results, the authors of the study advise that, although further work needs to confirm their results, pregnant women should avoid smoking tobacco and being around tobacco smoke to help prevent diabetes mellitus in their adult children.

Abstract
A fetus exposed to tobacco smoke may be at increased risk for diabetes in adulthood, a new study of adult daughters finds. The results will be presented in a poster Saturday, March 7, at ENDO 2015, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in San Diego.

Women whose parents smoked during pregnancy had increased risk of diabetes mellitus independent of known risk factors, adding to the evidence that prenatal environmental chemical exposures can contribute to adult diabetes mellitus.

The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and The California Breast Cancer Research Program Special Research Initiative funded this study.

Founded in 1916, the Endocrine Society is the world's oldest, largest and most active organization devoted to research on hormones and the clinical practice of endocrinology. Today, the Endocrine Society's membership consists of over 18,000 scientists, physicians, educators, nurses and students in 122 countries. Society members represent all basic, applied and clinical interests in endocrinology. The Endocrine Society is based in Washington, DC. To learn more about the Society and the field of endocrinology, visit our site at www.endocrine.org. Follow us on Twitter at https://twitter.com/#!/EndoMedia.

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