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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
December 16, 2011--------News Archive

Cancer and Fetal Exposure to Carcinogens
Some cancer, chronic diseasse and neurologic disorders can be attributed to fetal exposure to carcinogens as seen in studies of mice.

Gene Discovered for Weaver Syndrome
Research finds new gene for a rare genetic disorder; and also shows gene mutations in fetus cause syndromes- but same mutation later becomes cancer.

Mom's Asthma Inhaler Risks Child Endocrine Issues
Inhaled glucocorticoids for treating asthma in pregnancy are not associated with increased risk of most diseases in babies, but may increase baby's risk for endocrine and metabolic problems.

December 15, 2011--------News Archive

Progesterone Reduces Neonatal Risk
Women with a short cervix should be treated with vaginal progesterone to prevent preterm birth, according to a landmark study by leading obstetricians worldwide.

The Ability to Love Takes Root in Earliest Infancy
The first 12 to 18 months of life may predict your behavior in romantic relationships 20 years later.

Fetal Trachea Correction Increases Survival
A new study reveals that fetal tracheal occlusion (FETO) improves infant survival rate in severe cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).

December 14, 2011--------News Archive

Vaccine Successfully Attacks Breast Cancer in Mice!
Vaccine may have implications for treating ovarian, colorectal and pancreatic cancer.

Mom Weight Before/During Pregnancy Affects Baby
Both pre-pregnant weight and weight gain in pregnancy can predict babies’ birthweight. And high birthweight may also predict an overweight adult.

FoxC1 Gene Discovered to Maintain a Clear Cornea
Gene found in humans and mice that protects transparency of cornea, may lead to new therapy for some causes of blindness.

December 13, 2011--------News Archive

Animal Empathy, How Is It Different From Human?
Neuroscientist says animal models could open door to human feelings.

Clues to How the Pancreas Develops
A rare genetic disorder has given insight into how the pancreas develops. It may be possible to 'program' stem cells to become pancreatic cells.

Mitosis - Making The Right Copy At The Right Time
Scientists show how cells accurately inherit information gained epigenetically.

December 12, 2011--------News Archive

Gene Therapy Against Hereditary Bleeding Disorder
Gene therapy offers first proof that the treatment benefits adults with hemophilia B, reducing need for clotting factor to prevent bleeds.

What Goes On Behind Babies Gift of Gab
From the moment they're born, babies are highly attuned to communicate and motivated to interact. And they're great listeners.

Adult Brains Can Continue to Grow With Learning
London's taxi drivers' must pass a test showing they have memorized that city's complex layout of 25,000 streets – causing structural changes in their brains.

WHO Child Growth Charts

The cancer-causing potential of fetal exposure to carcinogens varies widely; but, this study suggests metabolic problems such as diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular disease and cancers can be triggered by exposure to carcinogens in-utero.


The cancer-causing potential of fetal exposure to carcinogens can vary substantially, a recent study suggests, causing different types of problems much later in life depending on the stage of pregnancy when the fetus is exposed.

The research sheds further light on the way in which toxic damage early in life can later manifest themselves as cancer, due to “epigenetic” changes in cells. It was done by scientists in the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University, and other institutions, in laboratory studies with mice.

In this study, published in the journal Cancer Letters, mice received four separate doses of a carcinogen commonly found in air pollutants or other combustion products. As a result, they had triple the level of ovarian cancer at the rodent equivalent of middle age. About 80 percent of them also got lung cancer, and many of the male mice had abnormally small testes – a phenomenon not seen before.

In previous research, by contrast, the same amount of this carcinogen given in a single dose had caused a much higher rate of T-cell lymphoma, a type of blood cancer, which this study found to almost disappear when the carcinogen exposure was spread out over time. Liver cancer also was largely absent.

“There’s still a lot of uncertainty about how the fetus responds to carcinogens and at what points in time it is most vulnerable,” said David Williams, a professor of environmental and molecular toxicology at OSU.

“We know it’s far more sensitive than adults for several reasons, including faster cell division and the lack of protective detoxifying enzymes,” he said. “But it’s interesting that the timing of fetal exposure makes such a difference in which organs are targeted. These results were somewhat surprising.”

The mice in these experiments were exposed to one type of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, a group of compounds commonly produced by everything from coal combustion to automobile exhaust. The levels of carcinogen the mice received were far higher than humans would face in a normal environment.

In the research, tracking with radioactive labeling showed that the carcinogens clearly made their way into the mouse fetuses, although at about 10 percent of the tissue concentration of those in the mother. The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health, and included collaborators from OSU and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

Increasing amounts of research are being done on PAHs, which are associated with the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum, and may be on the rise in some areas, particularly China, Williams said. They can also get into soils, be taken up by plants and make their way into the human food chain.

The types of cancer that these carcinogens can cause in animal models include lymphoma and leukemia, and cancer is the number one cause of disease-related death in children. Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure of pregnant women to carcinogens such as cigarette smoke enhances the risk for offspring to develop a number of cancers.

“The fetal basis of adult disease is relevant to a number of chronic diseases in humans, including diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular disease and cancer,” the researchers wrote in their report, “as well as neurological and behavior toxicities.”

Research such as this, scientists say, suggests that a healthy diet is important during pregnancy, including a wide range of fruits and vegetables. Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cauliflower, in particular, have high levels of some compounds believed to help protect against cancer.

About the Linus Pauling Institute: The Linus Pauling Institute at OSU is a world leader in the study of micronutrients and their role in promoting optimum health or preventing and treating disease. Major areas of research include heart disease, cancer, aging and neurodegenerative disease.

Original article: http://oregonstate.edu/ua/ncs/archives/2011/dec/cancer-fetal-exposure-carcinogens-depends-dose-timing