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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
December 23, 2011--------News Archive

Defending the Genome
New research illustrates how the genome adapts to a transposon invasion that threatens fertility in the fruit fly. The same mechanism may exist in humans.

Multiple Sclerosis Not an Immune System Disease
Recent research argues that multiple sclerosis, long viewed as primarily an autoimmune disease, is more similar to hardening of the arteries.

Toddlers Rely On Others To Monitor Their Speech
When grown-ups and kids speak, they listen to the sound of their voice and make corrections based on that auditory feedback - something toddlers can't do.

December 22, 2011--------News Archive

How Pregnancy Changes a Woman’s Brain
At no other time in a woman’s life does she experience such massive hormonal fluctuations as during pregnancy.

New Device To Support Improved Newborn Health
Fetal heart rate monitor also tracks how well an infant is using oxygen.

Weight Reduction Through Mindful Eating
Pregnancy is a time when heavy women tend to gain an excessive amount of weight and later find it very hard to lose.

December 21, 2011--------News Archive

Breast Cancer, Heart Disease Share Common Roots
Women who are at risk for breast cancer may also be at greater risk for heart disease.

Breastfeeding Promotes Healthy Growth
Breastfeeding lowers the growth hormones IGF-I and insulin, promoting slightly slower growth and reducing adult risk of overweight and diabetes.

First Months of Life Shape Flavor Preferences
Early dietary experience shapes salt preference of infants and preschoolers.

December 20, 2011--------News Archive

Babies Remember Even As They Seem to Forget
How much do babies remember about the world around them, and what details do their brains need to absorb to help them keep track of things and people?

Safer Treatment for Asthma, Allergies, Arthritis?
Found, a missing link between our biological clock and sugar metabolism which may avoid serious side effects of drugs used for asthma, allergies and arthritis.

Endometriosis Link to Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease is found in women with endometriosis in a nationwide Danish study.

December 19, 2011--------News Archive

Gene Discovered that Causes Rare Infant Epilepsy
The childhood disorder PKD is linked to a mysterious gene found in the brain called PRRT2 - a gene with little resemblance to anything in the human genome.

Don't Buy Noisy Toys!
If listened to at arms length, some popular items can permanently damage children's hearing - and hearing loss is not curable.

Childhood Cancer Drugs Cure, Later Cause Problems
Study indicates that drug toxicity may be related to genetic factors increasing risk of cardiomyopathy significantly in individuals with two copies of specific gene.

WHO Child Growth Charts

Will a drug used to treat childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and other pediatric cancers cause heart problems later in life?

UB associate professor of pharmaceutical sciences, Javier G. Blanco, PhD, who sees his work as a bridge between research and clinical practice, has focused recent efforts on trying to answer this question.

Blanco and colleagues' recent study in the Journal of Clinical Oncology looked for the underlying genetic answers to why some childhood cancer survivors who were treated with anthracylines - powerful antibiotics like Adriamycin and Daunomycin - developed cardiomyopathy, such as congestive heart failure, later in life.

"Anthracyclines are effective drugs used to treat a variety of pediatric cancers, they are also used to treat breast cancer and other malignancies in adults," Blanco says. "After cancer, survivors can develop cardiac toxicity anywhere from one year to more than 15 years after the initial chemotherapy with anthracyclines. The window separating the effectiveness of these drugs from their toxicity is narrow. The dosage has to be precise to achieve a therapeutic effect without toxicity."

Blanco explains that the key to individualizing any drug treatment comes down to understanding the way an individual is genetically coded to respond to the drug once it enters the body, and then adjusting the dose accordingly.

Working closely with Smita Bhatia, MD, MPH, chair of the Department of Population Sciences at City of Hope National Medical Center in California and senior author of the study, Blanco and a team of researchers decided to look at how the drug was broken down by enzymes encoded by specific genes.

The study, which began seven years ago, compared DNA genotypes of 170 childhood cancer survivors diagnosed with anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy to a control group of 317 survivors without heart disease.

Using the candidate gene approach, Blanco and his team were able to identify a tiny gene variant related to the risk of cardiotoxicity.

"We pinpointed the genetic difference or polymorphism that makes an enzyme work faster or slower in patients," said Blanco, "slower is better."

They zeroed-in on carbonyl reductases (CBR1 and CBR3) - two enzymes that break down anthracyclines into cardiotoxic alcohol metabolites. Blanco notes that in mouse models, higher levels of CBRs or faster enzymes dictate higher levels of these metabolites - and more cardio toxicity.

The research showed that the risk of cardiomyopathy was significantly increased among individuals with two copies of the "G" version of the CBR3 polymorphism when exposed to low-to-moderate doses of anthracycline.

Blanco says that while the results of the study validated the findings of an earlier study in a totally independent cohort of cancer survivors, further study is required.

"We have to be careful," says Blanco. "So far, we are showing an association, not yet causation. Our next step will be to conduct a prospective study -- where we don't study individuals who were exposed to anthracyclines in the past but follow them in real time as they are receiving the drug and after."

What does this mean for children who are taking or have taken anthracyclines?

"If we stop using anthracyclines we will not be able to cure up to 90 percent of the children who suffer from acute lymphoblastic leukemia." Blanco says. "Parents must continue to have their children's health monitored long after the cancer is cured to identify cardiac problems if they develop."

Blanco's research is primarily funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), the Lance Armstrong Foundation and the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, among many others.

The Children's Oncology Group (COG), whose mission is to eradicate childhood cancer, issued the study report. COG also provided the group of researchers Blanco collaborated with and helped to provide the study's subjects. The COG unites more than 7,500 experts in over 200 children's hospitals, universities and cancer centers. Blanco has been a member of the COG since 2001.

The University at Buffalo is a premier research-intensive public university, a flagship institution in the State University of New York system and its largest and most comprehensive campus. UB's more than 28,000 students pursue their academic interests through more than 300 undergraduate, graduate and professional degree programs. Founded in 1846, the University at Buffalo is a member of the Association of American Universities.

Original article: http://www.buffalo.edu/news/13076