Welcome to The Visible Embryo

Home- - -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- News Alerts -Contact

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

Return To Top Of Page
Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
December 30, 2011--------News Archive

Success in Making The Spinal Cord Transparent
Stimulating damaged nerve cells to regenerate has been the goal of medicine. Now it is possible to trace nerve paths in a transparent spinal cord section.

Brain Glial Cells Are Much More Than Glue
Glia cells also regulate learning and memory, new research finds.

Stress Can Slow Skin Cancer, At Least Sometimes
Chronic stress is an affliction mostly limited to modern man. However, acute stress is an important response to dangerous situations and can speed recovery.

December 29, 2011--------News Archive

FDA Warning On Change to Infant Acetaminophen
Recent dosing changes to liquid infant acetaminophen, has the FDA urging parents to read the labels. The new form of the popular pain reliever is less concentrated.

Detox Your Diet!
Harvard School of Public Health wants us all to eat food without chemicals as much as possible to avoid changing our own and our kids' body chemistry.

Discovery of Brain Cell Malfunction in Schizophrenia
Schizophrenic brains reveal less flexibility in some histones (the spools that wind DNA) blocking gene function. The problem is more pronounced in young sufferers.

December 28, 2011--------News Archive

When "A Rose by Any Other Name" Is Not
Children and adults do not classify information in the same way.

Childhood Hypersensitivity Linked to OCD
Adult onset of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder could be connected to oral and tactile sensitivities seen in childhood.

Gene Critical for Development Linked to Arrhythmia
Altering the function of a gene called Tbx3 interferes with the development of the cardiac conduction system causing potentially lethal arrhythmias of the heartbeat.

December 27, 2011--------News Archive

Reversing Autoimmune Disease in Mice
A team of scientists has turned the tables on an autoimmune disease.

An Altered Gene Tracks RNA As It Edits Neurons
Biologists use technology to observe individual differences in fruit flies

Mother-Toddler Relationship Linked to Teen Obesity
The quality of the emotional relationship between a mother and her young child could affect the potential for that child to be obese during adolescence.

December 26, 2011--------News Archive

Severe Congenital Disorder Reversed in a Mouse
Adding a sugar to water during pregnancy protects embryos from defects.

lincRNAs Pivotal In Brain Development
Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play key roles during brain development in zebrafish. Now human versions are substituting for the zebrafish.

Balancing the Womb
New research hopes to explain premature births and failed inductions of labor.

WHO Child Growth Charts

What Is Your BMI?

       



ADAR, an RNA-editing enzyme, glows green in Fruit flies showing significant variation (white arrows) in individuals even though they are genetically identical.

Biologists need to monitor genes in order to understand how they create molecular changes in a cell leading to mistakes such as disease and malfunctions in the formation of organ systems. Now Brown University biologists have created a glowing green indicator for tracking ADAR, a crucial enzyme for editing RNA in the nervous system.

This advance gives scientists a way to view when and where ADAR is active in a living animal and how much of it is operating at any given time. In experiments in fruit flies, the researchers found surprising degrees of individual variation in ADAR's RNA editing activity in the learning and memory centers of the brains of individual flies.

Their work is described in the journal Nature Methods, which appears Dec. 25, 2011.

"We designed this molecular reporter to give us a fluorescent readout from living organisms," said Robert Reenan, professor of biology and senior author of the paper. "When it comes to gene expression and regulation, the devil is in the details."

Biologists already know that errors in transcribing RNA from DNA can lead to improper gene expression - how the gene functions - in the nervous system and might contribute to diseases such as epilepsy, suicidal depression, and schizophrenia.

More recently they've gathered evidence that ADAR is associated with disease. For instance in a study in Nature Neuroscience two months ago, Reenan and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania described profound connections between ADAR and a model of Fragile X mental retardation in fruit flies.

Reenan feels that using this new "reporter" tool to look for correlations between ADAR activity levels and disease, might yield new insights into how RNA editing errors lead to individual variation.

He speculates that the fluorescent ADAR tracking system his research group has created could someday be adapted to fix a broken individual letter of RNA on an engineered gene.

"We're actually repairing RNA at the level of a single informational bit, or nucleotide," Reenan said. "Here we've shown we can take a mutant version of a gene and restore its function, but at the level of RNA rather than DNA."

A reporter of an editor

Reenan and Kyle Jay began working to create the reporter in 2006 working with a well-known tool of molecular biology: a jellyfish gene producing a protein that glows green when exposed to ultraviolet light.

Their intention was to break the gene in a way that ADAR is uniquely suited to fix.

They engineered the gene to glow green without mutating the DNA. Armed with their new ADAR reporter, Reenan and lead author James Jepson observed that ADAR activity is more pronounced in certain parts of the brains of developing larvae than it is in the brains of adults.

They also found wide variation in ADAR activity in the brains of flies of similar ages from individual to individual. This was a surprise, Reenan said, because all the flies are essentially genetically identical.

A versatile new tool?

Reenan is confident that the ADAR reporter can be useful in more organisms than the fruit fly.

The idea of creating the reporter grew out of his lab's studies in a number of species. ADAR is found in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In their paper the researchers describe testing the flexibility of their engineered jellyfish gene — destined as it was for a fruit fly — by splicing it to the intron of a moth.

"Thus a jellyfish-moth gene chimera was crippled by mutation, and repaired by a fruit fly enzyme," Reenan said.

"Rube Goldberg would be proud."

Reenan said he plans to use the ADAR reporter in flies to continue investigating genes associated with Fragile X. He's eager for someone who works on the disorder in mice to give it a try.

The idea of adapting this method to fix mistranscribed RNA or reverse DNA damage at the RNA level in a therapeutic fashion is for the future. But at least ADAR is now on the radar.

In addition to Reenan, Jepson, and Jay, the paper's other author is Yannis A. Savva. Jepson is also affiliated with Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia and Jay now works at the University of California–San Francisco.

An Ellison Medical Foundation Senior Scholar award funded the research.

Original article: http://news.brown.edu/pressreleases/2011/12/adar