Welcome to The Visible Embryo

Home- - -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- News Alerts -Contact

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



Home

History

Bibliography

Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.

Return To Top Of Page
Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
December 30, 2011--------News Archive

Success in Making The Spinal Cord Transparent
Stimulating damaged nerve cells to regenerate has been the goal of medicine. Now it is possible to trace nerve paths in a transparent spinal cord section.

Brain Glial Cells Are Much More Than Glue
Glia cells also regulate learning and memory, new research finds.

Stress Can Slow Skin Cancer, At Least Sometimes
Chronic stress is an affliction mostly limited to modern man. However, acute stress is an important response to dangerous situations and can speed recovery.

December 29, 2011--------News Archive

FDA Warning On Change to Infant Acetaminophen
Recent dosing changes to liquid infant acetaminophen, has the FDA urging parents to read the labels. The new form of the popular pain reliever is less concentrated.

Detox Your Diet!
Harvard School of Public Health wants us all to eat food without chemicals as much as possible to avoid changing our own and our kids' body chemistry.

Discovery of Brain Cell Malfunction in Schizophrenia
Schizophrenic brains reveal less flexibility in some histones (the spools that wind DNA) blocking gene function. The problem is more pronounced in young sufferers.

December 28, 2011--------News Archive

When "A Rose by Any Other Name" Is Not
Children and adults do not classify information in the same way.

Childhood Hypersensitivity Linked to OCD
Adult onset of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder could be connected to oral and tactile sensitivities seen in childhood.

Gene Critical for Development Linked to Arrhythmia
Altering the function of a gene called Tbx3 interferes with the development of the cardiac conduction system causing potentially lethal arrhythmias of the heartbeat.

December 27, 2011--------News Archive

Reversing Autoimmune Disease in Mice
A team of scientists has turned the tables on an autoimmune disease.

An Altered Gene Tracks RNA As It Edits Neurons
Biologists use technology to observe individual differences in fruit flies

Mother-Toddler Relationship Linked to Teen Obesity
The quality of the emotional relationship between a mother and her young child could affect the potential for that child to be obese during adolescence.

December 26, 2011--------News Archive

Severe Congenital Disorder Reversed in a Mouse
Adding a sugar to water during pregnancy protects embryos from defects.

lincRNAs Pivotal In Brain Development
Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) play key roles during brain development in zebrafish. Now human versions are substituting for the zebrafish.

Balancing the Womb
New research hopes to explain premature births and failed inductions of labor.

WHO Child Growth Charts

What Is Your BMI?

       




The spinal cord is the most important pathway for relaying information from the skin, muscles and joints to the brain and back again. Damage to nerve cells in this region usually results in irreversible paralysis and loss of sensation. For many years, scientists have been doing their best to ascertain why nerve cells refuse to regenerate. They search for ways to stimulate these cells to resume their growth.

To establish whether a single cell is growing, the cell must be visible in the first place. Up to now, the procedure has been to cut the area of the spinal cord required for examination into ultra-thin slices. These are then examined under a microscope and the position and pathway of each cell is reconstructed. In exceptional cases, scientists could go to the trouble of first digitizing each slice and then reassembling the images, one by one, to produce a virtual 3D model. However, this is a very time-consuming endeavour, requiring days and sometimes even weeks to process the results of just one examination.

Even worse, mistakes can easily creep in and falsify the results: The appendages of individual nerve cells might get squashed during the process of slicing, and the layers might be ever so slightly misaligned when set on top of each other.

As Frank Bradke explains: “Although this might not seem dramatic to begin with it prevents us from establishing the length and extent of growth of single cells.”

Bradke and his team at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology have investigated the regeneration of nerve cells following injuries to the spinal cord. Since July he has been working at the German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) in Bonn. “However, since changes on this crucial scale are precisely what we need to see, we worked meticulously until we came up with a better technique,” he continues.

The new technique is based on a method known as ultramicroscopy, which was developed by Hans Ulrich Dodt from the Technical University of Vienna. The Max Planck neurobiologists and an international team of colleagues have now taken this technique a step further.

The principle is relatively straightforward. Spinal cord tissue is opaque due to the fact that the water and the proteins contained in it refract light differently. Thus, the scientists removed the water from a piece of tissue and replaced it by an emulsion that refracts light in exactly the same way as the proteins. This left them with a completely transparent piece of tissue.

“It’s the same effect as if you were to spread honey onto textured glass,” Ali Ertürk, the study’s first author adds. The opaque pane becomes crystal clear as soon as the honey has compensated for the surface irregularities.

The new method is a leap forward in regeneration research.

By using fluorescent dyes to stain individual nerve cells, scientists can now trace their path from all angels in an otherwise transparent spinal cord section. This enables them to ascertain once and for all whether or not these nerve cells recommenced their growth following injury to the spine – an essential prerequisite for future research.

“The really great thing is the fact that this method can also be easily applied to other kinds of tissue,” Frank Bradke relates. For example, the blood capillary system or the way a tumour is embedded in tissue could be portrayed and analysed in 3D.

Original article: http://scienceblog.com/51328/scientists-succeed-in-making-the-spinal-cord-transparent/