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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
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January 24, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts

Understanding the chemistry of cells is key to creating medicines to treat "errors" in cell
function. It appears some chemistry works by simply changing the shape of molecules.

WHO Child Growth Charts

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Plugging Up A Fundamental Cell Process

Study of a plant hormone could have far-reaching implications for all cell biology and disease research

A recent Van Andel Research Institute (VARI) study published in the journal Science has established the molecular structure and function of an essential plant hormone which could profoundly change our understanding of a key cell process - and might ultimately lead to the development of new drugs for a variety of diseases.

The study builds on earlier work by the same team of investigators at VARI that was published in the journal Nature in 2009. That study shed light on how plants respond when they are under stress from extreme temperatures, drought and other harsh environmental conditions and was later named by Science as one of the top scientific breakthroughs of 2009.

Understanding How Cells Talk
In signal transduction – or intercellular communication – enzymes known as kinases and phosphatases are its opposing partners and key regulators.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that controls growth, development and responses to environmental stress.

VARI scientists mapped the structure of this receptor and discovered that ABA regulates the stress-response pathway by changing the shape of an enzyme in the phosphatase family which then binds to a kinase like a plug, blocking its function.

“This process had been little understood,” said Karsten Melcher, Ph.D., Head of the VARI Laboratory of Structural Biology and Biochemistry and co-author of the study.

"We believe that the activation mechanism may in many cases also be structural. Phosphatases inactivate the active site like a plug – changing the shape of the kinase.”

Previous to the VARI discovery, Melcher: "The textbook assumption has been that enzymatic phosphatases inhibit kinases only by taking away phosphates from the kinases. There have been few recorded examples of non-enzymatic phosphatases inhibiting kinases."

Knowing that these enzymes mimic the structure of the opposing enzyme enables scientists to more accurately develop mechanisms to activate or inhibit intercellular and intracellular communication. Inhibiting or activating this process in plant cells could lead to plants that more readily survive drought or other conditions of stress.

Possible Impact on Human Disease Treatment
In mammal cells, the ability to impact communication has numerous and far-reaching implications. For example, applications that inhibit or activate cell communication in out-of-control metastasizing cancer cells have enormous potential to affect tumor growth.

Writing in the journal Science, where the study was published on January 6, 2012, Jeffrey Leung notes that “molecular mimicry might be a common mechanism in many biological processes involving kinase-phosphatase complexes…The structural studies on the core ABA signaling proteins establish a new paradigm for kinase-phosphatase co-regulation and coevolution.”

The possibility of broader scientific implications is also noted by Melcher.

“The current studies take a step back from application and focus back on fundamental cellular mechanisms with a broad implication beyond ABA signaling,” said Melcher.

In their 2009 study in Nature, Melcher and H. Eric Xu, Ph.D., used X-ray crystallography to detail precisely how ABA works at the molecular level. One of ABA’s effects is to cause plant pores to close when plants are stressed so that they can retain as much water as possible.

In a follow-up 2010 study published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, the VARI team identified several synthetic compounds that fit well with ABA’s many receptors to have the same effect. By finding compounds that can close these pores, researchers’ findings could lead to sprays that use a plant’s natural defenses to help it survive harsh environmental conditions.

“This type of finding once again demonstrates the importance of identifying, mapping and understanding fundamental cellular and molecular processes because of the profound implications for human health,” said Xu, Director of the VARI Center for Structural Biology and Drug Discovery and co-author of the current Science study.

“Proteins with similarities to plant ABA receptors are also found in humans and further studies in this area could reveal important implications for people with cellular stress disorders.”

The lead authors of the current Science study are Fen-Fen Soon, Ley-Moy Ng, and Edward Zhou. The project was carried out in conjunction and collaboration with scientists from the National University of Singapore, Purdue University, The Scripps Research Institute, Scripps Florida, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Synchrotron Research Center of Northwestern University, and University of California at Riverside.

Links to the study and to the Science editorial cited above can be found here:
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/335/6064/85.abstract
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/335/6064/46.full

About Van Andel Institute
Established by Jay and Betty Van Andel in 1996, Van Andel Institute (VAI) is an independent research and educational organization based in Grand Rapids, Mich., dedicated to preserving, enhancing and expanding the frontiers of medical science, and to achieving excellence in education by probing fundamental issues of education and the learning process. VARI, the research arm of VAI, is dedicated to probing the genetic, cellular and molecular origins of cancer, Parkinson and other diseases and working to translate those findings into effective therapies. This is accomplished through the work of over 200 researchers in 18 on-site laboratories and in collaborative partnerships that span the globe. VARI is affiliated with the Translational Genomics Research Institute, (TGen), of Phoenix, Arizona.

Original article: http://www.vai.org/News/News/2012/01_23_XuMelcher-CellularProcess.aspx