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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
May 20, 2011--------News Archive

New Complexity In Genetic Diversity Of RNA
It turns out
RNA proteins do not precisely match the genes that encode them.

Validating Preschool Programs For Autism
Scientists from the Universities of Miami, North Carolina and Colorado, developed measures to evaluate teaching programs for autistic preschool children.


May 19, 2011--------News Archive

New Technique To 'Lift The Hood’ On Autism
A new study provides compelling evidence that exome-sequencing is an effective way to discover which of the 20,000 and more genes in the human genome are responsible for autism spectrum disorders.

Maternal Smoking Causes Changes In Fetal DNA
Children whose mothers or grandmothers smoked during pregnancy are at increased risk of asthma in childhood. A new study indicates changes in DNA methylation occuring before birth may be the root cause.


May 18, 2011--------News Archive

New Antiepileptic Drugs Don't Increase Birth Defects
Use of newer-generation antiepileptic drugs prescribed for bipolar mood disorders and migraine headaches, during the first trimester of pregnancy, are not associated with an increased risk of major birth defects in the first year of life in Denmark.

Neglect And Deprevation Age a Child's Chromosomes
Study of institutionalized Romanian children finds prematurely shortened telomeres, a mark of cell aging.


May 17, 2011--------News Archive

Older Fathers Linked to Autism In Children
Researchers sequenced protein-coding sections of affected childrens' genomes and their findings support population studies showing that autism is more common among children of older parents, especially older fathers.

Gene Variation Linked to Infertility in Women
A variation in a gene involved in regulating cholesterol also appears to affect progesterone in women, making it a likely culprit in cases of infertility.


May 16, 2011--------News Archive

Genetic Clue to Common Birth Defects Found
Scientists at King’s College London have for the first time uncovered a gene responsible for Adams-Oliver Syndrome, giving valuable insight into the possible genetic causes of common birth defects found in the wider population.

'Master switch' For Obesity and Diabetes Discovered
A gene linked to type 2 diabetes and cholesterol levels is in fact a 'master regulator' gene, which controls other genes found within fat in the body.

Tiny Change in One Gene May Explain Human Brain
The deep fissures and convolutions that increase the surface area and allow for rational and abstract thoughts of the human brain may be due to the LAMC3 gene.

Gene Change Can Get You Cancer Or Normal Growth
The deep fissures and convolutions that increase the surface area and allow for rational and abstract thoughts of the human brain may be due to one gene.


WHO Child Growth Charts


Model illustrating how FOXA1 defines subdomains of action in breast cancer cells. Green arrows represent transcription activity of ERα and FOXA1; dashed blue arrow indicates the action of FOXA1 as a modulator of ERα binding to a subset of promoters. FOXA1 thus grants permission to ERα to regulate a subset of the hormone response
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Gene expression is the process of converting the genetic information encoded in DNA into a final product such as a protein or any of several types of RNA.

Scientists have long thought that gene programs were regulated by different physiological processes throughout the body and were pre-determined and relatively fixed for every specialized cell.

But a new study by researchers from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine reveals the unsuspected plasticity of some of these gene programs.

Their findings, to be published in the May 15 advanced on-line edition of journal Nature, show the existence of distinct gene programs that can respond differently, depending on intracellular conditions.

The study helps explain why the same signaling event – such as a cellular response to circulating hormones – can be beneficial for normal development, but become cancerous when combined with other genetic lesions.

The UCSD scientists found that the response to the hormone androgen in prostate epithelial cells can lead to dramatic reprogramming into alternative gene programs and profiles. This flexibility could be the basis for the formation and progression of at least some forms of cancer, as well as for cell differentiation needed for normal development.

From a patient perspective, the results of this study help explain how hormone therapies, applied to prostate cancer in order to block hormone-regulated tumors, can escape treatment and become more malignant.

"Aggressive cell types, such as found in prostate cancer, basically learn to ignore hormone therapy," said co-principal investigator Xiang-Dong Fu, PhD, professor in the UCSD Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, who collaborated with co-principal investigator Michael G. Rosenfeld, MD, professor in the UCSD Department of Medicine and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator.

UCSD researchers looked at the down-regulation in the expression of a single transcription factor, FoxA1, which is a bad sign in certain advanced prostate tumors. They found that FoxA1, which is needed for normal prostate development, can also facilitate as well as restrict the binding of a receptor controlling its hormone response. Consequently, down-regulating FoxA1 triggers reprogramming of the cells' hormonal response.

Other cancer-associated events, such as specific androgen receptor (AR) gene mutations, appear capable of creating similar effects. This massive switch in AR binding to a distinct group of enhancers (pre-established regulatory elements in the human genome) is what may allow cancer cells to "reprogram" themselves.

These findings suggest that therapies designed to stop the switch between different gene programs may be more effective than simply blocking the hormonal response, according to co-first author Dong Wang, PhD and co-first author and co-principal investigator Ivan Garcia-Bassets, PhD, research assistant professor in the UCSD Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine.

Additional contributors to the study include co-first author Chris Benner, PhD, Jinsong Qiu, PhD, Minna U. Kaikkonen, PhD, and Christopher K. Glass, MD, PhD, UCSD Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine; Wenbo Li, PhD, Kenneth A. Ohgi, UCSD Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Xue Su and Wen Liu, Howard Hughes Medical Institute and UCSD graduate program in biology; and Yiming Zhou, PhD, Dignomics LLC, Malden, MA.

This comprehensive study of the mechanism underlying gene expression reprogramming was supported by funding from the Department of Defense, the National Institutes of Health, the National Cancer Institute, the Prostate Cancer Foundation and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Original article:

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-05/uoc--poh051211.php