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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform
The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!



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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
Click weeks 0 - 40 and follow fetal growth
Google Search artcles published since 2007
 
April 15, 2011--------News Archive

TET1 Crucial to Fetal Development and Cancer
TET1 ensures normal fetal development and is crucial when certain genes need to turn on or off during cell division.

Aging Eggs Key to Miscarriage and Birth Defects
By the time a woman is in her 40s, about half her eggs are probably chromosomally abnormal; for women in their 20s, it's probably about 10 percent.


April 14, 2011--------News Archive

Female Body Basis for Medical Autopsy/Dissection
The female body is at the heart of the development of autopsy and dissection beginning with medical practices from the middle ages.

A Measure of Cell Health - The Length of Telomeres
UCSF scientists report studies showing psychological stress leads to shorter telomeres – the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes. The findings also suggest that exercise may prevent this damage.


April 13, 2011--------News Archive

Air Polution Prenatally Linked to Behavior Problems
Mothers' exposure during pregnancy to pollutants may lead to behavioral problems in their children.

Stress In Pregnancy May Create Obesity in Child
Increasing evidence supports that pregnancies that are physically or psychologically stressed are at higher risk of producing obese offspring.


April 12, 2011--------News Archive

Umbilical Cord Stem Cells Studied for Lupus Therapy
Human umbilical cord blood stem cells found to benefit the treatment of lupus nephritis in mice with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Dopamine Controls Formation of New Brain Cells
The neurotransmitter dopamine acts as a handbreak turning off the production of stem cells forming new neurons in the adult brain.


April 11, 2011--------News Archive

Untangling The Complexity Of The Brain
There are an estimated one hundred billion nerve cells in the brain. Now scientists are moving closer to building a model of these connections and their functions.

New Treatment for Rare Recurrent Fever in Kids
A rare syndrome called periodic fever associated with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis — or PFAPA — is diagnosed using tools from the Human Genome Project.


WHO Child Growth Charts

A team at the National Institutes of Health has identified a promising new treatment in children with the most common form of a rare disorder. The syndrome is called PFAP, short for "periodic fever associated with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis." It is characterized by monthly fever flare-ups, along with sore throat, swollen glands and mouth lesions.

The new proposed treatment - still to be tested in a larger study before suggesting it as treatment for PFAPA - targets an inappropriate immune system attack.

"Until now, the basis of PFAPA has been a mystery," said senior author and NHGRI Scientific Director Daniel Kastner, M.D., Ph.D. "Advances in genomic analysis have allowed us to define a major role for the innate immune system, the body's first line of defense against infection. Targeting a specific product of white blood cells at the first sign of fever appears to abort the attacks."

Children with PFAPA syndrome experience attacks of fever, each lasting three to six days, usually three to eight weeks apart. Their predictability is so regular that parents have been known to make pediatric appointments a week ahead of when they expect their child to experience a fever episode. Affected children experience their first attack before the age of 5, with fevers usually slowing down and stopping in adolescence or young adulthood.

The only remedy for PFAPA is currently corticosteroids, or removal of an affected child's tonsils, which has a good rate of success in eliminating PFAPA syndrome, but is invasive surgery.

So, researchers looked for biological markers that would indicate the onset of a flare-up of fever in children with repeating illness.

During PFAPA flare-ups, the scientists detected decreased numbers of activated T cells, white blood cells that play a role in the cell's innate immune response. They also detected over-expression of genes usually activated in innate immune responses, including interleukin-1, a molecule that is important in triggering fever and inflammation.

From this information, they hypothesized that anakinra, a drug that prevents interleukin-1 from binding to its receptor, migh be therapuetic. After administering anakinra by injection to five children on the second day of their PFAPA fevers, all five showed a reduction in fever and inflammatory symptoms within hours.

The new treatment resulted from using a systems biology approach, which compares gene and protein expression between healthy and sick populations, to determine the underlying immune response. By analyzing patient blood samples, they detected which gene and protein networks were involved in the cell signaling and metabolic pathways of the disease.

The research group studied 21 patients with PFAPA syndrome along with an equal number of healthy children and 12 children with a distinctly different set of hereditary fever syndromes. They analyzed gene expression during episodes of fever compared to when the children were well. The analysis revealed gene expression profiles that uniquely identified PFAPA immune response.

When PFAPA patients are asymptomatic, their gene expression is similar to healthy children.

During PFAPA flare ups, the researchers detected activation of both forms of immune response—the innate, first-line-of-defense immunity, and adaptive immunity, which is the body's ability to detect and remember an infection in order to fight it later. This dual response supports the idea that the fevers of PFAPA are an immunologic response to some external stimulus, possibly microbial infection.

"The anakinra treatment has the potential to restore these children to a mostly symptom-free childhood," said Dr. Kastner. "The comprehensive analysis of gene expression during PFAPA attacks would not have been possible without the tools created by the Human Genome Project, and the possibility of an effective treatment is yet another of the genome project's many dividends."

The team of researchers from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) reported their findings in the April 8, 2011, early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

NHGRI is one of the 27 institutes and centers at the NIH, an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. The NHGRI Division of Intramural Research develops and implements technology to understand, diagnose and treat genomic and genetic diseases. Additional information about NHGRI can be found at its website, www.genome.gov.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2011-04/nhgr-nri040811.php