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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than ' million visitors each month.


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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
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March 7, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts

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Tonsils Make T-Cells, Too

A new study provides evidence that a critical type of immune cell can develop in human tonsils

T lymphocytes, or T cells, are essential for effective immune responses. The cells had been thought to develop only in the thymus, an organ of the immune system that sits on the heart.

However, this study shows that T cells are also produced in the tonsils, a discovery that could improve stem-cell transplantation and the understanding of T-cell cancers and autoimmune diseases.

The study, led by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC – James), could improve the understanding of T-cell cancers and autoimmune diseases, and how stem-cell transplantation is done.

The study identified T cells at five distinct stages of development in the tonsil. These stages, identified using molecular signposts on the cells, were very similar to the stages of T-cell development in the thymus, although some differences were found as well.

The study also discovered that the cells develop in a particular region of the tonsil, in areas near the fibrous scaffold of the tonsil.

The findings are published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

“We’ve known for a long time that a functional thymus is necessary to develop a complete repertoire of T-cells, but whether a T-cell factory existed outside the thymus has been controversial,” says principal investigator Dr. Michael A. Caligiuri, director of Ohio State’s Comprehensive Cancer Center and CEO of the James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute.

“I believe our study answers that question. It is the first report to describe a comprehensive, stepwise model for T-cell development outside the thymus.”


It also raises a number of questions. Caligiuri notes that it’s still unclear whether T-cells that develop in the tonsil also mature there or whether they leave the tonsil to mature elsewhere.

“The complete implications of this phenomenon for human health and disease are not entirely known,” adds first-author Susan McClory, a graduate fellow in Caligiuri’s laboratory. “It could be important in the development of T-cell cancers and autoimmune diseases, or it might suggest a location for T-cell development when thymus function is poor. We hope to do additional studies to explore these possibilities,” she says.

Caligiuri, McClory and their colleagues conducted the study using tonsil tissue obtained from children undergoing routine tonsillectomy at Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, and thymic tissue obtained from children undergoing thoracic surgery.

Using the molecular features of T-cells as they develop in the thymus, the researchers identified five populations of maturing T cells in the tonsils. They found, for example, that the first two of those groups resembled cells of the earliest stages of T cells that developed in the thymus, while cells in the fifth group were similar to nearly mature T-cells in the thymus.

They also showed that all five of the cell groups had the capacity to develop into T cells in laboratory tests, and that the first four populations had the capacity to develop into immune cells called natural killer cells.

“Overall, our work suggests that the tonsils serve as a T-cell factory, along with the thymus,” Caligiuri says. “Next, we need to learn what proportion of T-cells is derived within the tonsil compared with the thymus.”

Funding from the National Cancer Institute supported this research.

Other researchers involved in this study were Tiffany Hughes, Edward Briercheck, Chelsea Martin, Anthony J. Trimboli, Jianhua Yu, Xiaoli Zhang, Gustavo Leone and Gerard Nuovo of Ohio State University; and Aharon G. Freud of Stanford University.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute strives to create a cancer-free world by integrating scientific research with excellence in education and patient-centered care, a strategy that leads to better methods of prevention, detection and treatment. Ohio State is one of only 40National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers and one of only seven centers funded by the NCI to conduct both phase I and phase II clinical trials. The NCI recently rated Ohio State’s cancer program as “exceptional,” the highest rating given by NCI survey teams. As the cancer program’s 210-bed adult patient-care component, The James is a “Top Hospital” as named by the Leapfrog Group and one of the top 20 cancer hospitals in the nation as ranked by U.S.News & World Report.

Original article: http://cancer.osu.edu/mediaroom/releases/Pages/TONSILS-MAKE-T-CELLS.aspx