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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
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May 1, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts


Iron plays an important role in the development of organ systems, especially the brain.

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Mom's Stress In Pregnancy Affect Baby's Iron

Study shows maternal stress during first trimester of pregnancy puts newborns at risk for iron deficiency

Newborns whose mothers are under stress during the first trimester of pregnancy may be at risk for low iron status, which could lead to physical and mental delays down the road, according to a study presented Sunday, April 29, at the Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) annual meeting in Boston.

Iron plays an important role in the development of organ systems, especially the brain. Well-known risk factors for poor iron status in infants are maternal iron deficiency, maternal diabetes, smoking during pregnancy, preterm birth, low birthweight and multiple pregnancy.

This study, conducted by researchers from Ashkelon Academic College and Barzilai Medical Center in Israel and the University of Michigan, is the first in humans to suggest that maternal stress early in pregnancy is another risk factor for low iron status in newborns.

Researchers, led by Rinat Armony-Sivan, PhD, director of the psychology research laboratory at Ashkelon Academic College, recruited pregnant women who were about to give birth at Barzilai Medical Center.

The first group of women (stress group) lived in an area where there were more than 600 rocket attacks ("Oferet Yetzuka" operation) during their first trimester of pregnancy. The control group lived in the same area and became pregnant three to four months after the rocket attacks ended.

Women were questioned briefly at the delivery room reception desk to determine whether they were healthy and without pregnancy complications. Eligible women who agreed to participate in the study were interviewed one or two days after delivery about their background and health during pregnancy. They also filled out questionnaires about depression and anxiety, and rated their stress level during pregnancy.

Cord blood was collected from newborns, and serum ferritin (iron) concentrations were measured.

Results showed that the 63 babies whose mothers were in the stress group had significantly lower cord-blood ferritin concentrations than the 77 infants in the control group.

"Our findings indicate that infants whose mothers were stressed during pregnancy are a previously unrecognized risk group for iron deficiency," Dr. Armony-Sivan said. "Pregnant women should be aware that their health, nutrition, stress level and state of mind will affect their baby's health and well-being."

Dr. Armony-Sivan concluded that it may be advisable to consider additional blood work before the well-child visit at 12 months of age, especially in high-risk populations, so that iron deficiency, with or without anemia, can be detected early and treated before it becomes chronic and severe.

The Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) are four individual pediatric organizations that co-sponsor the PAS Annual Meeting – the American Pediatric Society, the Society for Pediatric Research, the Academic Pediatric Association, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Members of these organizations are pediatricians and other health care providers who are practicing in the research, academic and clinical arenas. The four sponsoring organizations are leaders in the advancement of pediatric research and child advocacy within pediatrics, and all share a common mission of fostering the health and well-being of children worldwide. For more information, visit www.pas-meeting.org. Follow news of the PAS meeting on Twitter at http://twitter.com/PedAcadSoc.

Original article: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-04/aaop-msd042012.php