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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
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July 6, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts


Cancer Mitosis

(a) In vivo tumors are subjected to spatially and mechanically challenging conditions

(b) Profile view of microfluidic device

(c) Cell division into five daughter cells

(Image credit: UCLA Engineering)

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Single Cancer Cell Produces 5 Daughter Cells

It's well known in conventional, mammalian biology that in cell division, a mother cell divides equally into two daughter cells. But in cancer, mother cells may be far more prolific

Bioengineers at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science developed a platform to mechanically confine cells, simulating the in-vivo three-dimensional environments in which they divide, and found that, upon confinement, cancer cells often split into three or more daughter cells.


Bioengineers developed a way to confine cells,
simulating the 3D environments in which they divide,
and found that cancer cells often split into
three or more daughter cells.


"We hope that this platform will allow us to better understand how the 3-D mechanical environment may play a role in the progression of a benign tumor into a malignant tumor that kills," said Dino Di Carlo, an associate professor of bioengineering at UCLA and principal investigator on the research.

The biological process of mitosis is tightly regulated by specific biochemical checkpoints to ensure that each daughter cell receives an equal set of sub-cellular materials, such as chromosomes or organelles, to create new cells properly.

However, when these checkpoints are miscued, the mistakes can have detrimental consequences. One key component is chromosomal count: When a new cell acquires extra chromosomes or loses chromosomes — known as aneuploidy — the regulation of important biological processes can be disrupted, a key characteristic of many invasive cancers.


A cell that divides into more than two daughter cells
undergoes a complex choreography of
chromosomal motion that can result in aneuploidy
- meaning it acquires extra chromosomes
or loses chromosomes.


By investigating the contributing factors that lead to mismanagement during the process of chromosome segregation, scientists may better understand the progression of cancer, said the researchers, whose findings were recently published online in the peer-reviewed journal PLoS ONE.

For the study, the UCLA team created a microfluidic platform to mechanically confine cancer cells to study the effects of 3-D microenvironments on mitosis events. The platform allowed for high-resolution, single-cell microscopic observations as the cells grew and divided. This platform, the researchers said, enabled them to better mimic the in vivo conditions of a tumor's space-constrained growth in 3-D environments — in contrast to traditionally used culture flasks.

Surprisingly, the team observed that such confinement resulted in the abnormal division of a single cancer cell into three or four daughter cells at a much higher rate than typical. And a few times, they observed a single cell splitting into five daughter cells during a single division event, likely leading to aneuploid daughter cells.

Di Carlo, who is also a member of the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA: "Even though cancer can arise from a set of precise mutations, the majority of malignant tumors possess aneuploid cells, and the reason for this is still an open question. Our new microfluidic platform offers a more reliable way for researchers to study how the unique tumor environment may contribute to aneuploidy."

Other authors on the paper included Henry Tat Kwong Tse and Westbrook McConnell Weaver, both UCLA biomedical engineering graduate students. The research team is currently seeking to partner with cancer researchers to further investigate the importance of confined environments on the development of cancer.

The study was funded by the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science.

For more on the Di Carlo laboratory's research, visit www.biomicrofluidics.com.

The UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science, established in 1945, offers 28 academic and professional degree programs and has an enrollment of more than 5,000 students. The school's distinguished faculty are leading research to address many of the critical challenges of the 21st century, including renewable energy, clean water, health care, wireless sensing and networking, and cybersecurity. Ranked among the top 10 engineering schools at public universities nationwide, the school is home to nine multimillion-dollar interdisciplinary research centers in wireless sensor systems, wireless health, nanoelectronics, nanomedicine, renewable energy, customized computing, the smart grid, and the Internet, all funded by federal and private agencies and individual donors

Original article: http://newsroom.ucla.edu/portal/ucla/ucla-bioengineers-discover-confined-235851.aspx