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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
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August 3, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts

WHO Child Growth Charts

       

'Unhealthy' Gut Microbes Benefit Pregnant Women

Research suggests that our bodies coevolved with microbiota that pregnant mom's actually use to support the fetus

The composition of microbes in the gut changes dramatically during pregnancy. Although these changes are associated with metabolic disease under most circumstances, they could be beneficial in pregnant women.

The study is published by Cell Press in the August 3rd issue of the journal Cell.

"This is the first in-depth characterization of the gut microbiota associated with pregnancy. The findings suggest that our bodies have coevolved with the microbiota and may actually be using them as a tool—to help alter the mother's metabolism to support the growth of the fetus." says senior study author Ruth Ley, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University.


In nonpregnant animals,
changes to gut microbe composition
can cause symptoms of metabolic syndrome,
including weight gain,
abnormal glucose metabolism,
and inflammation—an immune response
that normally protects the body
but can cause health problems.

These symptoms also appear during pregnancy,
but the underlying causes have been unclear,
and few studies have examined the potential link
to gut microbiota during pregnancy.


To address this question, Ley and her team obtained stool samples from 91 pregnant women. They found that gut microbes changed in composition from the first trimester to the third trimester, becoming less "normal" and less diverse over time. Health-boosting bacteria decreased in abundance, while disease-related bacteria increased in number. In addition, signs of inflammation increased over the course of the pregnancy. "The changes in gut microbes were not related to diet, so we think the immune system or hormones play a role," Ley says.

When gut microbes from pregnant women were transferred to healthy germ-free mice, animals that received microbes from the third trimester became fatter and had higher levels of inflammation markers and worse glucose metabolism than mice that received microbes from the first trimester.


"By the third trimester, the microbiota can induce
changes in metabolism. In the context of pregnancy,
these metabolic changes in the mother are healthy,
because they promote energy storage in fat tissue
and help support the fetus.
Outside of pregnancy, however, these changes
can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes
and other health problems."

Ruth Ley, Ph.D.


Koren et al.: "Remodeling of the gut microbiome and metabolic changes during pregnancy."

Original article: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-08/cp-ci073012.php