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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
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August 15, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts


Austin Hruskach, (at age 7), center, runs with teammates during soccer practice. His mom says Taurette Syndrome is "not stopping him from doing what any other 7-year-olds do."

WHO Child Growth Charts

       

First Genome Wide Studies of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tourette Syndrome

Two papers may help identify gene variants that contribute to the risks of developing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or Tourette syndrome (TS)

Both multi-institutional studies were led by Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators, and both are the first genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the largest groups of individuals affected by the conditions. Both articles will appear in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

"Previous studies of these disorders have demonstrated that both TS and OCD are strongly heritable and may have shared genetic risk factors, but identification of specific genes has been a huge challenge. These new studies represent major steps towards understanding the underlying genetic architecture of these disorders," says Jeremiah Scharf, MD, PhD, of the Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit (PNGU) in the MGH Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, a co-lead author of both papers and co-chair of the Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics.


An anxiety disorder characterized by obsessions
and compulsions that disrupt patients' lives,
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
is the fourth most common psychiatric illness.

Tourette syndrome, a chronic disorder
characterized by motor and vocal tics,
usually begins in childhood and is often
accompanied by conditions like OCD
or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.


Both conditions have a high risk of recurrence in close relatives of affected individuals, but previous studies that compared affected and unaffected individuals were not large enough to identify specific genes or areas of the genome that contribute to risk.

Since many gene variants probably contribute to risk for both conditions, the research teams undertook GWAS investigations, which analyze hundreds of thousands of gene variants called SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) in thousands of individuals with and without the condition of interest.

The International OCD Foundation Genetic Collaborative, consisting of more than 20 research groups in nine countries, analyzed almost 480,000 SNPs in 1,465 individuals with OCD, more than 5,500 controls and from 400 trio samples consisting of an OCD patient and both parents.

The Tourette Syndrome Association International Consortium for Genetics and the TS GWAS Consortium, representing 22 groups across seven countries, analyzed 484,000 SNPs across almost 1,500 cases and more than 5,200 controls.


The OCD study identified possible associations
with the gene BTBD3, which is closely related
to a gene that may be involved in Tourettes,
and within DLGAP1,
a close relative of a gene producing
OCD-like symptoms in mice if deleted.

The Tourette study found evidence of a possible
association with the gene COL27A1, which may be expressed in the cerebellum during development,
and with variants that help regulate gene expression
in the frontal cortex.


None of these or other identified SNPs reached the high threshold of genome-wide significance, which would indicate that the associations represented true risk factors, and the authors stress that additional, larger studies are required.

"Although GWAS analysis allows much more comprehensive examination of the entire genome than do studies focused on particular families or candidate genes, these two studies are still underpowered and should be interpreted with caution. The current results are interesting and provide us with a starting point for analyzing future studies that must be done to replicate and extend these findings," says Pauls, a co-senior author of both papers.

Scharf adds that the next steps should include testing the SNPs identified by these studies in other groups of patients and controls, analyzing both study groups together to identify genes that contribute to the risk of both disorders, and expanding international collaborations to increase the size and power of patient samples for both OCD and TS.

Scharf: "If future studies confirm that some of these variants do contribute to risk – either directly or by altering the function of other risk genes – that would suggest both novel disease mechanisms and might give us new treatment targets."

Scharf is an assistant professor of Neurology, Stewart a lecturer on Psychiatry and Pauls a professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Support for both studies includes grants from the National Institutes of Health, the Tourette Syndrome Association, the David Judah Fund and the McIngvale Fund.

Massachusetts General Hospital (www.massgeneral.org), founded in 1811, is the original and largest teaching hospital of Harvard Medical School. The MGH conducts the largest hospital-based research program in the United States, with an annual research budget of more than $750 million and major research centers in AIDS, cardiovascular research, cancer, computational and integrative biology, cutaneous biology, human genetics, medical imaging, neurodegenerative disorders, regenerative medicine, reproductive biology, systems biology, transplantation biology and photomedicine. In July 2012, MGH moved into the number one spot on the 2012-13 U.S. News & World Report list of "America's Best Hospitals."

Original article: http://www.massgeneral.org/about/pressrelease.aspx?id=1496