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Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

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Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersFemale Reproductive SystemFertilizationThe Appearance of SomitesFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFetal liver is producing blood cellsHead may position into pelvisBrain convolutions beginFull TermWhite fat begins to be madeWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningImmune system beginningPeriod of rapid brain growthBrain convolutions beginLungs begin to produce surfactantSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterDevelopmental Timeline
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August 20, 2012--------News Archive Return to: News Alerts


Three-year-olds can evaluate just how reasonable another person's
distressed reaction is to a particular incident or situation.

WHO Child Growth Charts

       

Savvy Tots to Grown-Ups: 'Don't Be Such a Crybaby'

Young children often know when someone does not deserve sympathy, new study finds

Children as young as 3 apparently can tell the difference between whining and when someone has good reason to be upset, and they will respond with sympathy usually only when it is truly deserved, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association.

"The study provides the first evidence that 3-year-olds can evaluate just how reasonable another person's distressed reaction is to a particular incident or situation, and this influences whether they are concerned enough to try to do something to help," said the study's lead author, Robert Hepach, MRes, of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. The study was published online in the APA journalDevelopmental Psychology.

The experiment involved 48 children, split evenly between girls and boys, from 36 to 39 months old. Researchers recorded reactions of each child as he or she witnessed an adult acting upset in one of three contexts: when the distress was justified, when it was unjustified and when the cause of the distress was unknown, the study said.

For the experiment, two adults met with each child and engaged in various situations in which one of the adults would display distress by frowning, whimpering or pouting. Their distress was in response to specific incidents of apparent physical harm, material loss or unfairness.

In each case, the child witnessed the adult either experiencing something that should cause distress or reacting to something that occurred in a similar context but was much less serious. Children who witnessed the adult being upset due to a real harm or injustice showed concern for him, intervened on his behalf and checked on him when he later expressed distress out of their view.

The situations the children witnessed included one adult dropping a toy box lid surreptitiously on another adult's hand or one adult getting a shirt sleeve snagged on the toy box lid; one adult finding three extra marbles and not sharing them with another adult or sharing six marbles equally; and one adult demonstrating the use of scissors to another adult or destroying the other adult's drawing by cutting it in half.


When a child witnessed an adult in a justifiably
distressing incident, the child's face showed concern,
whereas the child's expression indicated she was
"checking" when the incident did not warrant distress
or the adult was out of sight but could be heard.


In subsequent tests, one adult was given one
helium balloon and the child was given two.
When the adult "accidentally" let go of his balloon
and became distressed, the child would offer a
balloon more quickly to the adult if the child
had previously seen him upset due to true harm
rather than an inconvenience.


Hepach: "These very young children really considered what was happening in a given situation rather than automatically responding with sympathy to another person apparently in distress. In most instances, they identified unfounded distress and they responded in a manner appropriate for the specific situation."

Article: "Brief Report -- Young Children Sympathize Less in Response to Unjustified Emotional Distress," Robert Hepach, MRes, Amrisha Vaish, PhD, and Michael Tomasello, PhD, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Developmental Psychology, online, Aug. 13, 2012.

Full text of the article is available from the APA Public Affairs Office and at http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/dev-ofp-hepach.pdf

Contact: Robert Hepach, PhD, athepach@eva.mpg.de or +49 341 3550 484

The American Psychological Association, in Washington, D.C., is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States and is the world's largest association of psychologists. APA's membership includes more than 137,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 54 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives.

Original article: http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2012-08/apa-st082012.php