Welcome to The Visible Embryo
The Visible Embryo Birth Spiral Navigation
Fetal Timeline--- -Maternal Timeline-----News-----Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy---- Pregnancy Calculator----Female Reproductive System

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform

The World Health Organization (WHO) has a Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain information on clinical trials.

Now you can search all such registers to identify clinical trial research around the world!




Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System


Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.

Content protected under a Creative Commons License.
No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.


Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersDevelopmental TimelineFertilizationFirst TrimesterSecond TrimesterThird TrimesterFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFemale Reproductive SystemBeginning Cerebral HemispheresA Four Chambered HeartFirst Detectable Brain WavesThe Appearance of SomitesBasic Brain Structure in PlaceHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearFetal sexual organs visibleBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsInner Ear Bones HardenSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateFetal liver is producing blood cellsBrain convolutions beginBrain convolutions beginImmune system beginningWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisWhite fat begins to be madePeriod of rapid brain growthFull TermHead may position into pelvisImmune system beginningLungs begin to produce surfactant
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development

Developmental Biology - Biofabrication

Ultrasound Aligns Living Cells

Researchers use ultrasound to align living cells when making three-dimensional biologic materials...

North Carolina State University researchers have developed a way to improve engineered tissues by using ultrasound waves that can align living cells in the process of making biofabrics.
"We are able to create medical products, such as knee implants, by printing living cells. One challenge has been organizing cells that are printed to more closely mimic natural tissues."

Rohan Shirwaiker PhD, associate professor, Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

The paper is published in the journal: Biofabrication.

left knee joint
Henry Gray (1918) Anatomy of the Human Body, Plate 348

Shirwaiker explains:"We developed a technique, Ultrasound Assisted Biofabrication (UAB), allowing us to align cells in a three-dimensional matrix during bioprinting. This allows us to create a knee meniscus, for example, more similar to a patient's original meniscus. We've been able to align cells for a range of engineered musculoskeletal tissues."

To align the cells, researchers built an ultrasound chamber which allows ultrasonic waves to travel across an area where a bioprinter prints living cells. These ultrasonic waves travel in one direction and are then reflected back to their source, creating a "standing ultrasound wave." The soundwaves effectively herd cells into rows, which then align with areas where ultrasound waves and their reflected waves cross each other.

"We can control the alignment characteristics of the cells by controlling the parameters of the ultrasound, such as frequency and amplitude," Shirwaiker says.

To demonstrate the viability of the UAB technique, the researchers created a knee meniscus, with the cells aligned in a semilunar arc - just as they are in a natural meniscus.

"We were able to control the alignment of the cells as they were printed, layer by layer, throughout the tissue," Shirwaiker says. "We've also shown the ability to align cells in ways that are particularly important for other orthopedic soft tissues, such as ligaments and tendons."
Research also found certain combinations of ultrasound parameters led to cell death.

This gives researchers a clear understanding of what needs to be done to improve tissue performance, and what needs to be avoided to preserve living cells. To that end, the researchers have created computational models allowing users to predict the performance of any given set of parameters before beginning the biofabrication process.

One other benefit of the UAB technique is that it is relatively inexpensive.

Shirwaiker: "There's a one-time cost for setting up the ultrasound equipment - which can use off-the-shelf technology. After that, the operating costs for the ultrasound components are negligible. And the UAB technique can be used in conjunction with most existing bioprinting technologies.

There is a patent pending on the UAB technique. Shirwaiker and his associates are now looking for industry partners to help explore commercialization.

A critical consideration in tissue engineering is to recapitulate the microstructural organization of native tissues that is essential to their function. Scaffold-based techniques have focused on achieving this via the contact guidance principle wherein topographical cues offered by scaffold fibers direct migration and orientation of cells to govern subsequent cell-secreted extracellular matrix organization. Alternatively, approaches based on acoustophoretic, electrophoretic, photophoretic, magnetophoretic, and chemotactic principles are being investigated in the biofabrication domain to direct patterning of cells within bioink constructs. This work describes a new acoustophoretic three-dimensional (3D) biofabrication approach that utilizes radiation forces generated by superimposing ultrasonic bulk acoustic waves (BAW) to preferentially organize cellular arrays within single and multi-layered hydrogel constructs. Using multiphysics modeling and experimental design, we have characterized the effects of process parameters including ultrasound frequency (0.71, 1, 1.5, 2 MHz), signal voltage amplitude (100, 200 mVpp), bioink viscosity (5, 70 cP), and actuation duration (10, 20 min) on the alignment characteristics, viability and metabolic activity of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) suspended in alginate. Results show that the spacing between adjacent cellular arrays decreased with increasing frequency (p < 0.001), while the width of the arrays decreased with increasing frequency and amplitude (p < 0.05), and upon lowering the bioink viscosity (p < 0.01) or increasing actuation duration (p < 0.01). Corresponding to the computational results wherein estimated acoustic radiation forces demonstrated a linear relationship with amplitude and a non-linear relationship with frequency, the interaction of moderate frequencies at high amplitudes resulted in viscous perturbations, ultimately affecting the hASC viability (p < 0.01). For each combination of frequency and amplitude at the extremities of the tested range, the hASC metabolic activity did not change over 4 days, but the activity of the low frequency-high amplitude treatment was lower than that of the high frequency-low amplitude treatment at day 4 (p < 0.01). In addition to this process-structure characterization, we have also demonstrated the 3D bioprinting of a multi-layered medial knee meniscus construct featuring physiologically-relevant circumferential organization of viable hASC. This work contributes to the advancement of scalable biomimetic tissue manufacturing science and technology.

Parth Chansoria, Lokesh Karthik Narayanan, Karl Schuchard and Rohan A Shirwaiker.

The paper, "Ultrasound-assisted biofabrication and bioprinting of preferentially aligned three-dimensional cellular constructs," is published in the journal Biofabrication. First author of the paper is Parth Chansoria, a Ph.D. student and Provost Doctoral Fellow at NC State. The paper was co-authored by Lokesh Karthik Narayanan and Karl Schuchard, who are Ph.D. students at NC State.

The work was done with support from the National Science Foundation's Faculty Early Career Development Program, under grant number 1652489.

Return to top of page

Apr 15 2019   Fetal Timeline   Maternal Timeline   News  

In a demonstration of the UAB system, researchers bioprinted a human meniscus - a C-shaped
disc within the knee that heals very slowly (if at all) when injured. The cells within that printed
meniscus were aligned in a semilunar arc, as is the case in natural menisci.
Credit: Rohan Shirwaiker, NC State University.

Phospholid by Wikipedia