Welcome to The Visible Embryo
Home-- -History-- -Bibliography- -Pregnancy Timeline- --Prescription Drugs in Pregnancy- -- Pregnancy Calculator- --Female Reproductive System- -Contact

Welcome to The Visible Embryo, a comprehensive educational resource on human development from conception to birth.

The Visible Embryo provides visual references for changes in fetal development throughout pregnancy and can be navigated via fetal development or maternal changes.

The National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development awarded Phase I and Phase II Small Business Innovative Research Grants to develop The Visible Embryo. Initally designed to evaluate the internet as a teaching tool for first year medical students, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than one million visitors each month.

Today, The Visible Embryo is linked to over 600 educational institutions and is viewed by more than 1 million visitors each month. The field of early embryology has grown to include the identification of the stem cell as not only critical to organogenesis in the embryo, but equally critical to organ function and repair in the adult human. The identification and understanding of genetic malfunction, inflammatory responses, and the progression in chronic disease, begins with a grounding in primary cellular and systemic functions manifested in the study of the early embryo.

WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform

The World Health Organization (WHO) has created a new Web site to help researchers, doctors and patients obtain reliable information on high-quality clinical trials. Now you can go to one website and search all registers to identify clinical trial research underway around the world!




Pregnancy Timeline

Prescription Drug Effects on Pregnancy

Pregnancy Calculator

Female Reproductive System

Contact The Visible Embryo

News Alerts Archive

Disclaimer: The Visible Embryo web site is provided for your general information only. The information contained on this site should not be treated as a substitute for medical, legal or other professional advice. Neither is The Visible Embryo responsible or liable for the contents of any websites of third parties which are listed on this site.
Content protected under a Creative Commons License.

No dirivative works may be made or used for commercial purposes.


Pregnancy Timeline by SemestersLungs begin to produce surfactantImmune system beginningHead may position into pelvisFull TermPeriod of rapid brain growthWhite fat begins to be madeHead may position into pelvisWhite fat begins to be madeImmune system beginningBrain convolutions beginBrain convolutions beginFetal liver is producing blood cellsSensory brain waves begin to activateSensory brain waves begin to activateInner Ear Bones HardenBone marrow starts making blood cellsBone marrow starts making blood cellsBrown fat surrounds lymphatic systemFetal sexual organs visibleFinger and toe prints appearFinger and toe prints appearHeartbeat can be detectedHeartbeat can be detectedBasic Brain Structure in PlaceThe Appearance of SomitesFirst Detectable Brain WavesA Four Chambered HeartBeginning Cerebral HemispheresFemale Reproductive SystemEnd of Embryonic PeriodEnd of Embryonic PeriodFirst Thin Layer of Skin AppearsThird TrimesterSecond TrimesterFirst TrimesterFertilizationDevelopmental Timeline
CLICK ON weeks 0 - 40 and follow along every 2 weeks of fetal development
Google Search artcles published since 2007

Home | Pregnancy Timeline | News Alerts |News Archive May 8, 2015

Investigators plan to publish the parent training manuals to share
intervention techniques for managing behavioral problems.
Image Credit: Yale News





Parent training reduces autism behavioral problems

Young children with autism spectrum disorder, who also have serious behavioral problems, show improvement when their parents are trained with strategies to manage tantrums, aggression, self-injury, and non-compliance.

The findings from this parent training study by Yale and Emory University researchers were published recently in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA).

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a chronic condition starting in early childhood. Marked by impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, ASD affects 0.6 to 1% of children worldwide. In young children it is often complicated by moderate to severe behavioral problems.

“Serious behavioral problems interfere with everyday living for children and their families. Decreasing these serious problems results in children more able to manage everyday living.”

Lawrence Scahill PhD, senior author on the study, professor, Yale University School of Nursing and Child Study Center.

A 24-week trial was conducted by the Research Units on Behavioral Intervention (RUBI) Autism Network, a six-site National Institute of Mental Health consortium, dedicated to developing and testing behavioral treatments for ASD children.

"Parent training has been well studied in children with disruptive behavior disorder. Our study shows that parent training is also helpful for improving behavioral problems such as irritability and non-compliance in young children with ASD," adds Denis Sukhodolsky PhD, assistant professor Yale Child Study Center, who provided oversight for the multi-site study.

RUBI investigators randomly assigned 180 children ages 3 to 7 with ASD and behavioral problems to either a 24-week parent training program, or a 24-week parent education program. Parent education provided up-to-date and useful information about ASD, but no instruction on how to manage behavioral problems.

“In a previous report from this trial, we showed that combined treatment was superior to medication alone in reducing serious behavioral problems. In the current report, we show that combination treatment was better than medication alone on measures of adaptive behavior. We note that both groups — medication alone group and the combined treatment group — demonstrated improvement in functional communication and social interaction. But the combined group showed greater improvement on several measures of everyday adaptive function.”

Lawrence Scahill PhD

Based on their findings, Scahill and his team are now conducting a study that uses parent training as a stand-alone strategy in treating younger children with ASD. This study is being conducted at Yale and four other medical centers across the United States. Investigators plan to publish the parent training manuals as a way to share this intervention with the public.

"Parent education was an active control condition," said James Dziura, associate professor in the Department of Emergency Medicine at Yale, who led the study along with Cindy Brandt MD. "Both groups showed improvement, but parent training was superior on measures of disruptive and noncompliant behavior."

Importance Disruptive behavior is common in children with autism spectrum disorder. Behavioral interventions are used to treat disruptive behavior but have not been evaluated in large-scale randomized trials.

Objective To evaluate the efficacy of parent training for children with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behavior.

Design, Setting, and Participants This 24-week randomized trial compared parent training (n = 89) to parent education (n = 91) at 6 centers (Emory University, Indiana University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Rochester, Yale University). We screened 267 children; 180 children (aged 3-7 years) with autism spectrum disorder and disruptive behaviors were randomly assigned (86% white, 88% male) between September 2010 and February 2014.

Interventions Parent training (11 core, 2 optional sessions; 2 telephone boosters; 2 home visits) provided specific strategies to manage disruptive behavior. Parent education (12 core sessions, 1 home visit) provided information about autism but no behavior management strategies.

Main Outcomes and Measures Parents rated disruptive behavior and noncompliance on co-primary outcomes: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist–Irritability subscale (range, 0-45) and the Home Situations Questionnaire–Autism Spectrum Disorder (range, 0-9). On both measures, higher scores indicate greater severity and a 25% reduction indicates clinical improvement. A clinician blind to treatment assignment rated the Improvement scale of the Clinical Global Impression (range, 1-7), a secondary outcome, with a positive response less than 3.

Results At week 24, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist–Irritability subscale declined 47.7% in parent training (from 23.7 to 12.4) compared with 31.8% for parent education (23.9 to 16.3) (treatment effect, −3.9; 95% CI, −6.2 to −1.7; P < .001, standardized effect size = 0.62). The Home Situations Questionnaire–Autism Spectrum Disorder declined 55% (from 4.0 to 1.8) compared with 34.2% in parent education (3.8 to 2.5) (treatment effect, −0.7; 95% CI, −1.1 to −0.3; P < .001, standardized effect size = 0.45). Neither measure met the prespecified minimal clinically important difference. The proportions with a positive response on the Clinical Global Impression–Improvement scale were 68.5% for parent training vs 39.6% for parent education (P < .001).

Conclusions and Relevance For children with autism spectrum disorder, a 24-week parent training program was superior to parent education for reducing disruptive behavior on parent-reported outcomes, although the clinical significance of the improvement is unclear. The rate of positive response judged by a blinded clinician was greater for parent training vs parent education.

— — — — — — — — — — —

In addition to Yale and Emory University, which is the lead site, the RUBI Autism Network includes Indiana University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, and University of Rochester.

Other authors on the study include Karen Bearss, Cynthia Johnson, Tristram Smith, Luc Lecavalier, Naomi Swiezy, Michael Aman, David B. McAdam, Eric Butter, Charmaine Stillitano, Noha Minshawi, Daniel W. Mruzek, Kylan Turner, Tiffany Neal, Victoria Hallett, James A. Mulick, Bryson Green, Benjamin Handen, Yanhong Deng, and Lawrence Scahill.

Citation: JAMA doi:10.1001/jama.2015.3150 http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2275445

Return to top of page